Masaccio was deeply influenced both by Giotto's earlier innovations in solidity of form and naturalism and Brunelleschi's formalized use of perspective in architecture and sculpture, and moved away from the International Gothic style to a more realistic mode.
Renaissance painting was born in fifteenth-century Florence and moved away from the flatness of Gothic painting to focus on naturalism.
While the scenes and forms of the period were still relatively flat and stylized, Cimabue was a pioneer in the move towards naturalism in Italian painting, and his figures were depicted with more lifelike proportions and shading, as evident in the Crucifixion scene for the church of Santa Croce in Florence (1287-88) which demonstrates delicately shaded draperies and a use of the chiaroscuro technique .
Over time, he achieved greater naturalism and softness in his work and made use of foreshortening and chiaroscuro techniques.
Stylistically, Mannerist painting encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo.
The style waned in Italy after 1580, as a new generation of artists, including the Carracci brothers, Caravaggio and Cigoli, reemphasized naturalism.
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