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Romanesque Sculpture: Mary as the Throne of Wisdom
In the Roman Catholic tradition, the epithet "the Seat of Wisdom," or "Throne of Wisdom" (a translation of the still-used Latin sedes sapientiae), is identified with one of many devotional titles for the Mother of God. The phrase was characterized in the 11th and 12th centuries by Peter Damiani and Guibert de Nogent. It likens Mary to the Throne of Solomon, referring to her status as a vessel of the incarnation carrying the Holy Child. As the phrase associates the Blessed Virgin with glory and with teaching, Madonna-images in this tradition are especially popular in Catholic imagery .
In Christian iconography, sedes sapientiae ("The Throne of Wisdom") is an icon of the Mother of God in majesty. When the Virgin is depicted in sedes sapientiae icons and sculptural representations, she is seated on a throne with the Christ Child on her lap.
This type of madonna-image was a variant of the ByzantineHodegetria type. It appeared in a wide range of sculptural and, later, painted images in Western Europe, especially near 1200 CE. In these representations, some structural elements of the throne invariably appear, even if only handholds and front legs. For hieratic purposes, the Virgin's feet often rest on a low stool. Later, Gothicsculptures of the type are more explicitly identifiable with the Throne of Solomon, where "two lions stood, one at each hand. And twelve little lions stood upon the six steps on the one side and on the other. " (I Kings 10, 19-20, see also below. )
The sedes sapientiae icon also appeared in illuminated manuscripts and Romanesque frescoes and mosaics, and was represented on seals. The icon additionally possesses emblematic verbal components: the Virgin as the Throne of Wisdom is a trope of Damiani or Guibert de Nogent, based on their typological interpretation of the passage in the Books of Kings that describes the throne of Solomon (I Kings 10: 18–20, repeated at II Chronicles 9: 17–19). This motif was frequently used in Early Netherlandish painting in works like the Lucca Madonna by Jan van Eyck.
Source: Boundless. “Romanesque Sculpture: Mary as the Throne of Wisdom.” Boundless Art History. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 25 Jul. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/art-history/textbooks/boundless-art-history-textbook/romanesque-art-19/romanesque-sculpture-126/romanesque-sculpture-mary-as-the-throne-of-wisdom-537-4725/