Biotechnology and Genomics
Relying on the study of DNA, genomics analyzes entire genomes, while biotechnology uses biological agents for technological advancements.
Basic Techniques to Manipulate Genetic Material (DNA and RNA)
Basic techniques used in genetic material manipulation include extraction, gel electrophoresis, PCR, and blotting methods.
Molecular and Cellular Cloning
Molecular cloning refers to the reproduction of desired regions or fragments of a genome, which allow the manipulation and study of genes.
Reproductive cloning, possible through artificially-induced asexual reproduction, is a method used to make a clone of an entire organism.
In genetic engineering, an organism's genotype is altered using recombinant DNA, created by molecular cloning, to modify an organism's DNA.
Biotechnology in Medicine
From manipulation of mutant genes to enhanced resistance to disease, biotechnology has allowed advances in medicine.
Production of Vaccines, Antibiotics, and Hormones
Biotechnological advances in gene manipulation techniques have further resulted in the production of vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones.
Transgenic Animals and Plants
Transgenic modification, adding recombinant DNA to a species, has led to the expression of desirable genes in plants and animals.
Genetic maps provide information about which chromosomes contain specific genes and precisely where the genes lie on that chromosome.
Physical Maps and Integration with Genetic Maps
Physical maps display the physical distance between genes and can be constructed using cytogenetic, radiation hybrid, or sequence mapping.
Strategies Used in Sequencing Projects
The strategies used for sequencing genomes include the Sanger method, shotgun sequencing, pairwise end, and next-generation sequencing.
Use of Whole-Genome Sequences of Model Organisms
Sequencing genomes of model organisms allows scientists to study homologous proteins in more complex eukaryotes, such as humans.
Uses of Genome Sequences
Genome sequences and expression can be analyzed using DNA microarrays, which can contribute to detection of disease and genetic disorders.
Predicting Disease Risk at the Individual Level
Genome analysis is used to predict the level of disease risk in healthy individuals.
Pharmacogenomics, Toxicogenomics, and Metagenomics
The effectiveness and safety of drugs can be determined through pharmacogenomics.
Other Topics in Genomics
Microbial genomics can be used to create new biofuels.
Genomics and Proteomics
Proteomics is the study of the entire set of proteins produced by a cell type in order to understand its structure and function.
Basic Techniques in Protein Analysis
The basic techniques used to analyze proteins are mass spectrometry, x-ray crystallography, NMR, and protein microarrays.
Proteomics, the analysis of proteins, plays a prominent role in the study and treatment of cancer.