Biotechnology and Genomics
Relying on the study of DNA, genomics analyzes entire genomes, while biotechnology uses biological agents for technological advancements.
Basic Techniques to Manipulate Genetic Material (DNA and RNA)
Basic techniques used in genetic material manipulation include extraction, gel electrophoresis, PCR, and blotting methods.
Molecular and Cellular Cloning
Molecular cloning refers to the reproduction of desired regions or fragments of a genome, which allow the manipulation and study of genes.
Reproductive cloning, possible through artificially-induced asexual reproduction, is a method used to make a clone of an entire organism.
In genetic engineering, an organism's genotype is altered using recombinant DNA, created by molecular cloning, to modify an organism's DNA.
Biotechnology in Medicine
From manipulation of mutant genes to enhanced resistance to disease, biotechnology has allowed advances in medicine.
Production of Vaccines, Antibiotics, and Hormones
Biotechnological advances in gene manipulation techniques have further resulted in the production of vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones.
Transgenic Animals and Plants
Transgenic modification, adding recombinant DNA to a species, has led to the expression of desirable genes in plants and animals.