Definition of analogous
when similar similar physical features occur in organisms because of environmental constraints and not due to a close evolutionary relationship
Examples of analogous in the following topics:
- These are called analogous structures .Similar traits can be either homologous or analogous.
- Homologous structures share a similar embryonic origin; analogous organs have a similar function.
- These structures are not analogous.
- The wings of a butterfly and the wings of a bird are analogous, but not homologous.
- Some structures are both analogous and homologous: the wings of a bird and the wings of a bat are both homologous and analogous.
- Similar traits can be either homologous structures that share an embryonic origin or analogous structures that share a function.
- The opposite of homologous structures are analogous structures, which are similar structures between two taxa that were not present in the last common ancestor but rather, evolved separately.
- An example of an analogous trait would be the wings of bats and birds, which evolved independently in each lineage after diverging from ancestors with forelimbs not used as wings (terrestrial mammals and theropod dinosaurs, respectively).
- In the above example, the bird and bat wings are analogous as wings, but homologous as forelimbs because the organ served as a forearm (not a wing) in the last common ancestor of tetrapods .
- The wings of a maple seed and the wings of an albatross are analogous but not homologous (they both allow the organism to travel on the wind, but they didn't both develop from the same structure).
- Parallel evolution occurs when two independent but similar species evolve in the same direction and thus independently acquire similar characteristics; for example, gliding frogs have evolved in parallel from multiple types of tree frog.Analogous StructuresTraits arising through convergent evolution are analogous structures, in contrast to homologous structures, which have a common origin, but not necessarily similar function.
- Bat and pterosaur wings are an example of analogous structures, while the bat wing is homologous to human and other mammal forearms, sharing an ancestral state despite serving different functions.Divergent EvolutionThe opposite of convergent evolution is divergent evolution, whereby related species evolve different traits.
- Because the events that occur during each of the division stages are analogous to the events of mitosis, the same stage names are assigned.
- In that sense, the meristematic cells are frequently compared to the stem cells in animals, which have an analogous behavior and function.Meristem tissue and plant development Meristematic tissues are cells or group of cells that have the ability to divide.
- This process is analogous to eating breakfast in the morning to acquire energy for your body that can be used later in the day.
- In particular, they clarify whether certain traits are homologous (found in the common ancestor as a result of divergent evolution) or homoplasy (sometimes referred to as analogous: a character that is not found in a common ancestor, but whose function developed independently in two or more organisms through convergent evolution).
- Previously, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on homologous and analogous morphology; however, with the advances in molecular biology, construction of phylogenetic trees is increasingly performed using data derived from molecular analyses.
- Additionally, many important genes originally discovered in S. cerevisiae served as a starting point in discovering analogous human genes.
- Building Phylogenetic TreesAfter the homologous and analogous traits are sorted, scientists often organize the homologous traits using a system called cladistics.