Definition of bacterial chromosome
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly-shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material.
Examples of bacterial chromosome in the following topics:
- A bacterial chromosome is a covalently-closed circle that is not as well organized as eukaryotic chromosomes.
- Plasmids can be transferred independently of the bacterial chromosome during cell division and often carry traits such as antibiotic resistance.Transcription in prokaryotes (and in eukaryotes) requires the DNA double helix to partially unwind in the region of mRNA synthesis.
- The single, circular DNA chromosome of bacteria is not enclosed in a nucleus, but instead occupies a specific location, the nucleoid, within the cell.
- The packing proteins of bacteria are, however, related to the cohesin and condensin proteins involved in the chromosome compaction of eukaryotes.The bacterial chromosome is attached to the plasma membrane at about the midpoint of the cell.
- The starting point of replication, the origin, is close to the binding site of the chromosome at the plasma membrane .
- Mitochondrial DNA can be regarded as the smallest chromosome.
- More recent work proposes that gram-negative bacteria, which are unique within their domain in that they contain two lipid bilayer membranes, did result from an endosymbiotic fusion of archaeal and bacterial species .
- One idea about how the eukaryotic nucleus evolved is that prokaryotic cells produced an additional membrane which surrounded the bacterial chromosome.