The birth of molecular research is closely interconnected with the discovery, history, and study of DNA.
DNA has many practical applications in a variety of fields including forensics and medicine.
DNA is a double helix of two anti-parallel, complementary strands having a phosphate-sugar backbone with nitrogenous bases stacked inside.
DNA sequencing techniques are used to determine the order of nucleotides (A,T,C,G) in a DNA molecule.
DNA replication uses a semi-conservative method that results in a double-stranded DNA with one parental strand and a new daughter strand.
Prokaryotic DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase III in the 5' to 3' direction at a rate of 1000 nucleotides per second.
DNA replication in eukaryotes occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination, which are aided by several enzymes.
As DNA polymerase alone cannot replicate the ends of chromosomes, telomerase aids in their replication and prevents chromosome degradation.
Most mistakes during replication are corrected by DNA polymerase during replication or by post-replication repair mechanisms.