DNA Structure and Function
14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
Historical Basis of Modern Understanding of DNA
DNA has many practical applications in a variety of fields including forensics and medicine.
14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
DNA is a double helix of two anti-parallel, complementary strands having a phosphate-sugar backbone with nitrogenous bases stacked inside.
DNA Sequencing Techniques
DNA sequencing techniques are used to determine the order of nucleotides (A,T,C,G) in a DNA molecule.
14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
Basics of DNA Replication
DNA replication uses a semi-conservative method that results in a double-stranded DNA with one parental strand and a new daughter strand.
14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotic DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase III in the 5' to 3' direction at a rate of 1000 nucleotides per second.
14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
DNA replication in eukaryotes occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination, which are aided by several enzymes.
As DNA polymerase alone cannot replicate the ends of chromosomes, telomerase aids in their replication and prevents chromosome degradation.