32.1 Reproductive Development and Structure
Plants have developed various strategies, both sexual and asexual, to ensure reproductive success.
Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms
Angiosperms may be monoecious or dioecious and undergo sexual reproduction.
Sexual Reproduction in Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms produce both male and female gametophytes on separate cones and rely on wind for pollination.
32.2 Pollination and Fertilization
Plants can transfer pollen through self-pollination; however, the preferred method is cross-pollination, which maintains genetic diversity.
Pollination by Insects
Plants have developed adaptations to promote symbiotic relationships with insects that ensure their pollination.
Pollination by Bats, Birds, Wind, and Water
Non-insect methods of pollination include pollination by bats, birds, wind, and water.
Angiosperms undergo two fertilization events where a zygote and endosperm are both formed.
Development of the Seed
Monocot and dicot seeds develop in differing ways, but both contain seeds with a seed coat, cotyledons, endosperm, and a single embryo.
Development of Fruit and Fruit Types
Fruits are categorized based on the part of the flower they developed from and how they release their seeds.
Fruit and Seed Dispersal
Some fruits can disperse seeds on their own, while others require assistance from wind, water, or animals.
32.3 Asexual Reproduction
Plants can reproduce asexually, without the fertilization of gametes, by either vegetative reproduction or apomixis.
Natural and Artificial Methods of Asexual Reproduction
Plants can undergo natural methods of asexual reproduction, performed by the plant itself, or artificial methods, aided by humans.
Plant Life Spans
The life cycles and life spans of plants vary and are affected by environmental and genetic factors.