Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate
Innate Behaviors: Movement and Migration
Innate behaviors, such as kinesis, taxis, and migration, are instinctual responses to external stimuli.
Innate Behaviors: Living in Groups
Animals communicate using signals, which can be chemical (pheromones), aural (sound), visual (courtship displays), or tactile (touch).
Innate Behaviors: Altruism
Altruistic behaviors may be explained by the natural instinct to improve the chances of passing on one’s genes.
Innate Behaviors: Finding Sexual Partners
In mating, there are two types of selection (intersexual, intrasexual) and three mating systems (monogamous, polygynous, polyandrous).
Simple Learned Behaviors
Simple learned behaviors include habituation and imprinting, both of which are important to the maturation process of young animals.
In classical conditioning, a behavior is paired with an unrelated stimulus; in operant conditioning, behaviors are modified by consequences.
Cognitive Learning and Sociobiology
Cognitive learning relies on cognitive processes such as reasoning and abstract thinking; it is much more efficient than conditioning.