Theoretically, there are many benefits that can be achieved through a communist society. Communist ideology supports widespread universal social welfare. Improvements in public health and education, provision of child care, provision of state-directed social services, and provision of social benefits will, theoretically, help to raise labor productivity and advance a society in its development. Communist ideology advocates universal education with a focus on developing the proletariat with knowledge, class consciousness, and historical understanding. Communism supports the emancipation of women and the ending of their exploitation. Both cultural and educational policy in communist states have emphasized the development of a "New Man"—a class-conscious, knowledgeable, heroic, proletarian person devoted to work and social cohesion, as opposed to the antithetic "bourgeois individualist" associated with cultural backwardness and social atomization.
Other theoretically beneficial ideas characteristic of communist societies include:
- People are equal. In a communist regime, people are treated equally in the eyes of the government regardless of education, financial standing, et cetera. Economic boundaries don’t separate or categorize people, which can help mitigate crime and violence.
- Every citizen can keep a job. In a communist system, people are entitled to jobs. Because the government owns all means of production, the government can provide jobs for at least a majority of the people. Everyone in a communist country is given enough work opportunities to live and survive. Every citizen, however, must do his or her part for the economy to receive pay and other work benefits.
- There is an internally stable economic system. In communism, the government dictates economic structure; therefore, economic instability is out of the question. Every citizen is required to work in order to receive benefits, and those who don’t have corresponding sanctions. This creates an incentive to participate and to encourage economic growth.
- Strong social communities are established. In communism, there are certain laws and goals which determine resource and responsibility allocation. If the citizens abide by these laws, this leads to a harmonious spirit of sharing one goal. Consequently, this builds stronger social communities and an even stronger economy.
- Competition doesn't exist. In communist societies, everyone can work harmoniously without stepping on each other’s toes. Work, responsibility, and rewards are shared equally among the citizens. If people have no sense of envy, jealousy or ambitions that counter the goals of the state, then a harmonious economic development can be maintained (Figure 1).
- Efficient distribution of resources. In a communist society, the sense of cooperation allows for efficiency in resource distribution. This is very important, especially in times of need and in emergency situations.