Stakeholder, an entity that can be affected by the results of that in which they are said to be stakeholders, i.e., that in which they have a stake.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the flow of information between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations provides an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. The aim of public relations by a company often is to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view concerning it, its leadership, products, or political decisions. Common activities include speaking at conferences, winning industry awards, working with the press, and employee communication.
Media relations involves working with various media for the purpose of informing the public of an organization's mission, policies, and practices in a positive, consistent, and credible manner. Typically, this means coordinating directly with the people responsible for producing the news and features in the mass media. The goal of media relations is to maximize positive coverage in the mass media without paying for it directly through advertising .
Many people use the terms public relations and media relations interchangeably; however, doing so is incorrect. "Media relations" refers to the relationship that a company or organization develops with journalists, while "public relations" is the practice of extending that relationship beyond the media to the general public.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a widely implemented model for managing a company's interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients to return, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service. Customer relationship management describes a company-wide business strategy including customer-interface departments as well as other departments. Measuring and valuing customer relationships is critical to implementing this strategy.
Employee relationship management systems (ERM) may be defined as the information systems that support the relationship between a company and its employees. The components of an employee relationship management system are multiple, and, as in customer relationship management, achieve the goal of assisting employees in the whole life cycle of their activities in and for the company.
In the past few years, employee relationship management has focused on the set up of a do-it-yourself knowledge exploration; the target is to avoid the risk that employees refuse any IT solution in which combining information from multiple spread sheets and databases is tedious and manual. The key idea is that a good management of the relationship with employees has a great value for the company and is a driver of performance improvement both in individuals and in teams.
Employee relationship management systems are one of the SW tools that a company needs for the development of the Human Capital Management toward an Employeeship approach where the main objective is to achieve a working environment that stimulates involvement among employees and managers.