Examples of macroscopic properties in the following topics:
- Kinetic Molecular Theory explains the macroscopic properties of gases and can be used to understand and explain the gas laws.
- The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases comes from observations that scientists made about gases to explain their macroscopic properties.
- Uses the kinetic theory of gases to explain properties of gases (expandability, compressibility, etc.
- macroscopic properties (noun) properties that can be visualized or measured by the naked eye; examples include pressure, temperature, and volume
- Though ionic and covalent character represent points along a continuum, these designations are frequently useful in understanding and comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and covalent compounds.
- The interpretation of entropy is the measure of uncertainty, which remains about a system after its observable macroscopic properties, such as temperature, pressure, and volume, have been taken into account.
- For a given set of macroscopic variables, the entropy measures the degree to which the probability of the system is spread out over different possible microstates.
- entropy (noun) A thermodynamic property that is the measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work.
- List the types of chemical bonds and their general properties
Chemical bonding describes a variety of interactions that hold atoms together in chemical compounds.
- These atomic properties help describe the macroscopic properties of compounds.
- The kinetic molecular theory of matter offers a description of the microscopic properties of atoms (or molecules) and their interactions, leading to observable macroscopic properties (such as pressure, volume, temperature).
- Identify the general properties of the ester functional group
Esters are functional groups produced from the condensation of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid, and are named based on these components.
- Their flexibility and low polarity affects their physical properties on a macroscopic scale; they tend to be less rigid, leading to a lower melting point, and more volatile, leading to a lower boiling point, than the corresponding amides.
- Due to production difficulties, none of the elements beyond californium has industrial applications, and of them, only einsteinium has ever been produced in macroscopic quantities.
- atomic number (noun) The number, equal to the number of protons in an atom that determines its chemical properties.
- Since a significant proportion of the meso-tartaric acid molecules in a sample will have chiral conformations, the achiral properties of the sample (e.g. optical inactivity) should not be attributed to the symmetry of the Fischer formula.
- Since enantiomers have equal potential energies, they will be present in equal concentration, thus canceling their macroscopic optical activity and other chiral behavior.
- De Broglie showed that the theory of relativity was applicable to not just photons but also all particles with linear momentum, and therefore that matter, including electrons, also has wave-like properties.
- Thus it became apparent that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties.
- Before the acceptance of the de Broglie hypothesis, diffraction was a property that was thought to only be exhibited by waves.
- Even macroscopic objects like tennis balls have a calculable de Broglie wavelength; however, they would be much too small to observe experimentally, and their wave-like nature is not intuitive to common experience.
- Distinguish between extensive and intensive properties
Recognize the difference between physical and chemical properties
Properties of matter can be classified as either extensive or intensive and as either physical or chemical.
- All properties of matter are either physical or chemical properties and physical properties are either intensive or extensive.
- Both extensive and intensive properties are physical properties, which means they can be measured without changing the substance's chemical identity.
- Physical properties are properties that can be measured or observed without changing the chemical nature of the substance.
- Remember, the definition of a chemical property is that measuring that property must lead to a change in the substance's chemical structure.
- extensive property (noun) Any characteristic of matter that depends on the amount of matter being measured.
- chemical property (noun) Any characteristic that can be determined only by changing a substance's molecular structure.
- physical property Any characteristic that can be determined without changing the substance's chemical identity.
- intensive property (noun) Any characteristic of matter that does not depend on the amount of the substance present.