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The name of a hydrate follows a set pattern: the name of the ionic compound followed by a numerical prefix and the suffix -hydrate.
Recognize when a compound is a hydrate
Categorize a compound according to which type of hydrate it belongs
Generate the chemical formula and systematic name of a given inorganic hydrate
Hydrates are named by the ionic compound followed by a numerical prefix and the suffix "-hydrate.
" The "· nH2O" notation indicates that "n" (described by a Greek prefix) number of loosely bonded water molecules are associated per formula unit of the salt.
An anhydride is a hydrate that has lost water.
A substance that does not contain any water is referred to as anhydrous.
In organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound of water, or its elements, with another molecule.
Glucose, C6H12O6, was originally thought of as a carbohydrate (carbon and water), but this classification does not properly describe its structure and properties.
"Hydrate" is a term used in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry to indicate that a substance contains loosely bonded water.
The name of a hydrate follows a set pattern: the name of the ionic compound followed by a numerical prefix and the suffix "-hydrate."
For example, CuSO4 · 5 H2O is "copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate."
The notation of hydrous compound · nH2O, where n is the number of water molecules per formula unit of the salt, is commonly used to show that a salt is hydrated.
The "$\cdot$" indicates that the water is loosely bonded to the ionic compound.
The "n" is usually a low integer though it is possible for fractional values to exist.
The prefixes are the same Greek prefixes used in naming molecular compounds.
Therefore, in a monohydrate "n" is one; in a hexahydrate "n" is 6, and so on.
A hydrate that has lost water is referred to as an anhydride.
An anhydride can normally lose water only with significant heating.
A substance that no longer contains any water is referred to as anhydrous.
In organic chemistry, hydrates tend to be rarer.
An organic hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water or its elements to another molecule.
For example, ethanol, CH3–CH2–OH, can be considered a hydrate of ethene, CH2=CH2, formed by the addition of H to one C and OH to the other C.
Another example is chloral hydrate, CCl3–CH(OH)2, which can be formed by the reaction of water with chloral, CCl3–CH=O.
Molecules have been labeled as hydrates for historical reasons.
Glucose, C6H12O6, was originally thought of as C6(H2O)6 and was described as a carbohydrate, but this is a very poor description of its structure given what is known about it today.
Methanol is often sold as "methyl hydrate," implying the incorrect formula CH3OH2.
The correct formula is CH3–OH.