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Ion-dipole and ion-induced dipole forces operate much like dipole-dipole and induced dipole-dipole interactions.
However, ion-dipole forces involve ions instead of solely polar molecules.
Ion-dipole forces are stronger than dipole interactions because the charge of any ion is much greater than the charge of a dipole; the strength of the ion-dipole force is proportionate to ion charge.
Ion-dipole bonding is also stronger than hydrogen bonding.
An ion-dipole force consists of an ion and a polar molecule aligning so that the positive and negative charges are next to one another, allowing for maximum attraction.
Ion-Induced Dipole Force
An ion-induced dipole force occurs when an ion interacts with a non-polar molecule.
Like a dipole-induced dipole force, the charge of the ion causes a distortion of the electron cloud in the non-polar molecule, causing a temporary partial charge.
The temporary partially charged dipole and the ion are attracted to each other and form a fleeting interaction.
an ion and a nonpolar molecule; the strength is proportionate to the ion charge, an ion and a polar molecule; the strength is proportionate to the size of polar molecule., an ion and a polar molecule; the strength is inversely proportionate to the ion charge, and an ion and a polar molecule; the strength is proportionate to the ion charge