The lower half of the brainstem that contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers and is associated with autonomic, involuntary functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
The lower half of the brainstem that contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers and regulates autonomic, involuntary functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
The lower half of the brainstem that contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic, involuntary functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Examples of medulla in the following topics:
- The adrenal medulla is the core of the adrenal glands, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex.
- The adrenal medulla is responsible for the production of catecholamines, derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
- The adrenal medulla secretes approximately 20% noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and 80% adrenaline (epinephrine).
- Chromaffin cells are the neuroendocrine cells found in the medulla; they are modified post-synaptic sympathetic neurons that receive sympathetic input.
- The adrenal medulla sits below the three layers of the adrenal cortex and is innervated by nerve fibers.
- The medulla oblongata controls autonomic functions and connects the higher levels of the brain to the spinal cord.
- The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem.
- An open or superior part where the dorsal surface of the medulla is formed by the fourth ventricle.
- During development, the medulla oblongata forms from the myelencephalon.
- Describe the location and function of the medulla oblongata region of the brain stem
- The cortex and medulla make up two of the internal layers of a kidney and are composed of individual filtering units known as nephrons.
- The renal cortex is a space between the medulla and the outer capsule.
- The medulla is the inner region of the parenchyma of the kidney.
- The kidney is made up of three main areas: the outer cortex, a medulla in the middle, and the renal pelvis.
- Distinguish between the cortex and medulla in the internal anatomy of the kidney
- The medulla and the pons are involved in the regulation of the ventilatory pattern of respiration.
- The medulla oblongata is the primary respiratory control center.
- There are two regions in the medulla that control respiration:
- The medulla also controls the reflexes for nonrespiratory air movements, such as coughing and sneezing reflexes, as well as other reflexes, like swallowing and vomiting.
- The pons is the other respiratory center and is located underneath the medulla.
- The medulla oblongata, in the lower half of the brainstem, is the control center of the autonomic nervous system.
- Within the brain, the ANS is located in the medulla oblongata in the lower brainstem.
- The medulla's main functions are to control the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers, to mediate autonomic, involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure, and to regulate reflex actions such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and swallowing.
- The medulla is a subregion of the brainstem and is a major control center for the autonomic nervous system.
- Medulla injury results in a wide variety of deficits including numbness, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, and poor coordination.
- Lateral medullary syndrome, also called Wallenberg syndrome and posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome, is a disease that presents with a constellation of neurologic symptoms due to injury to the lateral part of the medulla in the brain, resulting in tissue ischemia and necrosis, typically from blood clot (stroke) impeding the vertebral artery and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery .
- MRI image showing an acute infarct in the left dorsal lateral medulla.
- Describe the effects of injury to the medulla in the brainstem
- The adrenal glands consist of an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla, which secrete different hormones.
- The adrenal medulla contains large, irregularly-shaped cells that are closely associated with blood vessels.
- Epinephrine is the primary adrenal medulla hormone, accounting for 75 to 80 percent of its secretions.
- These glands are composed of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
- Distinguish between the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla and the functions they regulate
- The three components of the brainstem are the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and
medulla oblongata (myelencephalon) is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the
- The medulla
contains the cardiac,
centers regulating heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
- The pons
(part of metencephalon)
lies between the medulla oblongata and the
- It contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the
medulla and to the cerebellum.
- Eighty-five percent of nephrons are cortical nephrons, deep in the renal cortex; the remaining 15 percent are juxtamedullary nephrons, which lie in the renal cortex close to the renal medulla.
- The second part is called the loop of Henle, or nephritic loop, because it forms a loop (with descending and ascending limbs) that goes through the renal medulla.
- The collecting ducts amass contents from multiple nephrons, fusing together as they enter the papillae of the renal medulla.
- The glomerulus and convoluted tubules of the nephron are located in the cortex of the kidney, while the collecting ducts are located in the pyramids of the kidney's medulla.
- Each adrenal gland has two distinct structures, the outer adrenal cortex and the inner medulla—both produce hormones.
- The cortex mainly produces mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens, while the medulla chiefly produces adrenaline and nor-adrenaline.