Both disciplines are about maximization: microeconomics is about maximizing profit for firms, and surplus for consumers and producers, while macroeconomics is about maximizing national income and growth.
The main difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics is scale.
Microeconomics studies the behavior of individual households and firms in making decisions on the allocation of limited resources.
Another way to phrase this is to say that microeconomics is the study of markets.
Microeconomics does consider how macroeconomic forces impact the world, but it focuses on how those forces impact individual firms and industries.
Microeconomics focuses on individual markets, while macroeconomics focuses on whole economies.
A focus of the subject is how economic agents behave or interact both individually (microeconomics) and in aggregate (macroeconomics).
Microeconomics examines the behavior individual consumers and firms within the market, including assessment of the role of preferences and constraints.
Formal economic modeling began in the 19th century with the use of differential calculus to represent and explain economic behavior, such as utility maximization, an early economic application of mathematical optimization in microeconomics.
Public choice is described as "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science. " In microeconomics, public choice analyses collective decision making and studies economic models of political processes including rent-seeking, elections, legislatures, and voting behavior.
The aggregate demand curve is downward sloping but in variation with microeconomics, this is as a result of three distinct effects: the wealth effect, the interest rate effect and the exchange-rate effect.