Examples of expectancy theory in the following topics:
- Analyze Vroom's expectancy theory to assess the accuracy and effectiveness of motivating based upon expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
Expectancy theory deals with mental processes regarding choices and behaviors.
- Expectancy theory proposes that individuals decide to act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a behavior over other behaviors based on their expectation of the result.
- Expectancy theory is about the mental processes involved in making choices.
- In organizational behavior, expectancy theory embraces Victor Vroom's definition of motivation.
- In Vroom's analysis, the basis for motivation is threefold:
the individual's expectancy that effort will lead to the intended performance
the instrumentality of this performance in achieving a certain result
the desirability of the result (known as valence) to the individual
Vroom introduces three variables within his expectancy theory: valence (V), expectancy (E), and instrumentality (I).
- expectancy theory (noun) A framework that holds that people decide to act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors based on the expected result.
- In cognition-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through fulfilling employees' rational expectation that they be compensated based directly on the amount of value they provide.
- Theories of motivation are of course rooted in psychology.
- Various theories have attempted to identify the factors that contribute to effective employee motivation, most of which are easily divided into four broad categories:
At its most basic, motivation can be defined as the fulfillment of various human needs.
- Cognition-oriented theories generally revolve around expectations and deriving equitable compensation for a given effort or outcome.
- There are two main cognition-oriented theories: equity theory and expectancy theory.
- Define the value and applications of organizational theory from a business perspective.
- One example of how development in organizational theory improves efficiency is in factory production.
- Organizational theory studies organizations to identify the patterns and structures they use to solve problems, maximize efficiency and productivity, and meet the expectations of stakeholders.
- Organizational theory then uses these patterns to formulate normative theories of how organizations function best.
- Correctly applying organizational theory can have several benefits for both the organization and society at large.
- Analyze Frederick Herzberg's perspective on motivating employees through his Two-Factor Theory (also known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory)
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory states that certain factors cause job satisfaction and other factors cause dissatisfaction.
- Extrinsic motivators are expected and so cause dissatisfaction if they are absent.
- Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, also known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory or intrinsic vs.
- The key factor that differentiates Two-Factor Theory is the idea of expectation.
- This is because of expectation.
- Two-Factor Theory (noun) A framework, developed by Frederick Herzberg, that suggests there are certain factors in the workplace that can cause job satisfaction and a separate set of factors can cause dissatisfaction.
- Identify the leadership and task/follower characteristics identified by Robert House in the Path-Goal theory (1971)
The Path-Goal theory argues that a leader's role is to help followers achieve both personal and organizational goals.
- In 1971, Robert House introduced his version of a contingent theory of leadership known as the Path-Goal theory.
- House's leadership styles include:
Directive, path-goal clarifying leader: The leader clearly defines what is expected of followers and tells them how to perform their tasks.
- Achievement-oriented leader: The leader sets challenging goals for followers, expects them to perform at their highest level, and shows confidence in their ability to meet this expectation.
- Expectations of and confidence in followers: Leaders trust that their followers can succeed and expect them to do so.
- Path-Goal theory (noun) A leadership model outlining the role of the leader as helping followers define personal and organizational goals and find a path to reach those goals.
- Outstanding Leadership Theory (noun) A model that defines ten traits that exceptional leaders possess; an expansion of the Path-Goal model.
- While there are a wide variety of theories and methods attributed to persuasion, the one's most central to business include functional theories, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), conditioning, cognitive dissonance, attribution theory, inoculation theory and social judgement theory.
- While there are a wide variety of theories and methods attributed to persuasion, some of the ones most central to business include functional theories, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), conditioning, cognitive dissonance, attribution theory, inoculation theory and social judgement theory.
- We will a select few of these theories for further clarification:
Functional Theories - These theories revolve around assumptions about how people may react towards influence or persuasion in respect to their own attitudes.
- Conditioning - Behaviorism, and the tendency of the mind to desire an expected outcome from a familiar input, can be an extremely effective persuasive component.
- This is persuasion at a sub-conscious and indirect level, where the individual slowly aligns their expectations in a way that benefits the persuader.
- Identify Chris Argyris's key contributions to organizational theory through single-loop and double-loop learning
Argyris's theory of single- and double-loop learning has been applied to management theory to suggest the best ways for employees to learn.
- In single-loop learning, individuals, groups, or organizations modify their actions according to the difference between expected and obtained outcomes.
- He is best known for his work on learning theories in the area of learning organizations.
- In single-loop learning, entities (such as individuals, groups, or organizations) modify their actions according to the difference between expected and obtained outcomes.
- Argyris's theory of single- and double-loop learning has been applied to management theory in order to suggest the best way for employees to learn and think about new goals and strategies for an organization.
- double-loop learning (noun) A theory in which an organization or individual questions the values, assumptions, and policies that led to a given situation.
- single-loop learning (noun) A theory that says individuals, groups, or organizations modify their actions according to the difference between expected and obtained outcomes.
- Explain the managerial importance of understanding motivational theories as they pertain to an organization's employees
Managers can employ motivational theory and reinforcement tools to motivate employees and increase efficiency.
- Need-based theories of motivation focus on an employee's drive to satisfy needs by working.
- Equity theory is derived from social-exchange theory.
- Employees expect that they will receive an equivalent reimbursement for the value they create.
- Using equity theory, managers can consider employees' actions in context with desired outcomes.
- They monitor their employees' work carefully to assess any deviation from expected standards.
- Transactional leaders seek to maintain compliance within existing goals and expectations and the current organizational culture.
- Transactional leaders are expected to do the following:
Set goals and provide explicit guidance regarding what they expect from organizational members and how they will be rewarded for their efforts and commitment
Provide constructive feedback on performance
Focus on increasing the efficiency of established routines and procedures and show concern for following existing rules rather than making changes
Establish and standardize practices that will help the organization become efficient and productive
Respond to deviations from expected outcomes and identify corrective actions to improve performance
Psychologist Abraham Maslow characterized people's motivating factors in terms of needs.
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (noun) A psychological theory, proposed by Abraham Maslow in the 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation," which depicts lower- and higher-level human needs in the form of a pyramid.
- Taylorism, or scientific management, is the original job-design theory.
- The Socio-Technical Systems Approach is a theory that maps the evolution from individual work to work groups.
- Taking into account these various theoretical models, job design is best described as specifying a task with enough context to communicate clearly and concisely what is expected of a given employee.
- A task can be best defined as a piece of assigned work expected to be performed within a certain time.
- These include Taylorism, Socio-Technical Systems Approach, Core Characteristics Model, and Psychological Empowerment Theory.