Fayol was a classical management theorist, widely regarded as the father of modern operational management theory(Figure 1). His ideas are a fundamental part of modern management concepts. Fayol is often compared to Frederick Winslow Taylor who developed Scientific Management. Fayol refers to Taylor in his writings. However, he differed from Taylor in his focus and developed his ideas independently. Taylor was concerned with task time, and improving worker efficiency but Fayol was concerned with management and is generally agreed to consider more human and behavioral factors in his management theories than Taylor. In addition, Fayol argued for equity in the treatment of workers. Another major difference between Taylor and Fayol's theories is that Taylor viewed management improvements as happening from the bottom up, or starting with the most elemental units of activity and making individual workers more efficient. In contrast, Fayol emphasized a more top-down perspective focused on educating management on improving processes first and then moving to workers. Fayol believed that by focusing on managerial practices organizations could minimize misunderstandings and increase efficiency. His writings guided managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties, and the practices in which they should engage. In his book "General and Industrial Management" Fayol outlined his theory of general management, which he believed could be applied to the administration of myriad industries. As a result of his concern for workers, Fayol was considered on of the early fathers of the Human Relations movement.
Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
Fayol developed 14 principles of management in order to help managers manage their affairs more effectively. Today, these principles are still use but are often interpreted differently. These fourteen principles include:
- Division of work
- Delegation of Authority
- Chain of commands
- Congenial workplace
- Interrelation between individual interests and common organizational goals
- Compensation package
- Scalar chains
- Job Guarantee
Additionally, Fayol stressed the importance and the practice of forecasting and planning in order to apply these ideas and techniques. In General and Industrial Management, he outlines an agenda whereby, under an accepted theory of management, every citizen is exposed to some form of management education and allowed to exercise management abilities first at school and later on in the workplace. Fayolism's concern with the humanity of employees and his focus on training management instead of focusing on individual worker efficiency draws the line between Fayol and Taylor.