Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are responsible for their mass and charge.
Electron orbitals are three-dimensional representations of the space in which an electron is likely to be found.
Ionic bonds are attractions between oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms where electrons are donated and accepted.
A hydrogen bond is a strong intermolecular force created by the relative positivity of hydrogen atoms.
Covalent bonds result from a sharing of electrons between two atoms and hold most biomolecules together.
The mole is represented by Avogadro's number.
The average atomic mass of an element is the sum of the masses of its isotopes each multiplied by its natural abundance.
Carbon is the most important element to living things because it's able to bond in many different ways and form many essential compounds.
Chemical reactions often produce changes in energy.
The orientation of hydrogen bonds as water changes states dictates the properties of water in its gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.
Salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Acids release H+ while bases release OH-; consequently, buffers maintain a system's required pH if exposed to these solutions.
Carbohydrates are essential macromolecules that are classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Fats and oils, which may be saturated or unsaturated, can be unhealthy but also serve important functions for plants and animals.
DNA is a nucleic acid that controls all cellular activities, while RNA creates the proteins that makes these events occur.
An amino acid contains an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group and combines with other amino acids to form polypeptide chains.
Proteins perform many essential physiological functions, including catalyzing biochemical reactions.
Cells couple the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis with endergonic reactions to harness the energy within the bonds of ATP.
Organisms consume glucose in order to produce energy, and photosynthetic plants use energy and carbon dioxide to produce glucose.
ΔG determines the direction and extent of chemical change.
The enthalpy of a reaction measures energy changes in a reaction and is dependent on reaction conditions.
Cells regulate their biochemical processes by inhibiting or activating enzymes.
A substrate binds to an enzyme, which ultimately promotes the progression of the reaction.