Examples of electric field in the following topics:

 Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area.
 Electric flux is the rate of flow of the electric field through a given area (see ).
 Electric flux is proportional to the number of electric field lines going through a virtual surface.
 If the electric field is uniform, the electric flux passing through a surface of vector area S is $\Phi_E = \mathbf{E} \cdot \mathbf{S} = ES \cos \theta$ where E is the magnitude of the electric field (having units of V/m), S is the area of the surface, and θ is the angle between the electric field lines and the normal (perpendicular) to S.
 For a nonuniform electric field, the electric flux dΦE through a small surface area dS is given by $d\Phi_E = \mathbf{E} \cdot d\mathbf{S}$ (the electric field, E, multiplied by the component of area perpendicular to the field).

 A point charge creates an electric field that can be calculated using Coulomb's law.
 The electric field of a point charge is, like any electric field, a vector field that represents the effect that the point charge has on other charges around it.
 Let's first take a look at the definition of the electric field of a point particle:
 The electric field of a point charge is defined in radial coordinates.
 The electric field of a positively charged particle points radially away from the charge, while the electric field of a negatively charged particle points toward the particle.

 An electric field that is uniform is one that reaches the unattainable consistency of being constant throughout.
 A uniform field is that in which the electric field is constant throughout.
 Uniformity in an electric field can be approximated by placing two conducting plates parallel to one another and creating a potential difference between them.
 Uniformity of an electric field allows for simple calculation of work performed when a test charge is moved across it.
 In uniform fields it is also simple to relate ∆V to field strength and distance (d) between points A and B:

 A point charge creates an electric field that can be calculated using Coulomb's Law.
 The electric field of a point charge is, like any electric field, a vector field that represents the effect that the point charge has on other charges around it.
 Let's first take a look at the definition of electric field of a point particle,
 The electric field of a positively charged particle points radially away from the charge, while the electric field of a negatively charged particle points toward the particle.
 The electric field of a point charge is defined in radial coordinates.

 Electromagnetic waves are the combination of electric and magnetic field waves produced by moving charges.
 As it travels through space it behaves like a wave, and has an oscillating electric field component and an oscillating magnetic field.
 Once in motion, the electric and magnetic fields created by a charged particle are selfperpetuating—timedependent changes in one field (electric or magnetic) produce the other.
 This means that an electric field that oscillates as a function of time will produce a magnetic field, and a magnetic field that changes as a function of time will produce an electric field.
 Notice that the electric and magnetic field waves are in phase.

 If conductors are exposed to charge or an electric field, their internal charges will rearrange rapidly.
 Similarly, if a conductor is placed in an electric field, the charges within the conductor will move until the field is perpendicular to the surface of the conductor.
 Negative charges in the conductor will align themselves towards the positive end of the electric field, leaving positive charges at the negative end of the field.
 This occurrence is similar to that observed in a Faraday cage, which is an enclosure made of a conducting material that shields the inside from an external electric charge or field or shields the outside from an internal electric charge or field.
 Describe behavior of charges in a conductor in the presence of charge or an electric field

 Where F is the force vector, q is the charge, and E is the electric field vector.
 It should be emphasized that the electric force F acts parallel to the electric field E.
 A consequence of this is that the electric field may do work and a charge in a pure electric field will follow the tangent of an electric field line.
 The angle dependence of the magnetic field also causes charged particles to move perpendicular to the magnetic field lines in a circular or helical fashion, while a particle in an electric field will move in a straight line along an electric field line.
 Compare the effects of the electric and the magnetic fields on the charged particle

 In the case of an electric field the stimulus is charge, and thus the units are NC1.
 In other words, the electric field is a measure of force per unit charge.
 In a more pure sense, without assuming field uniformity, electric field is the gradient of the electric potential in the direction of x:
 Explain the relationship between the electric potential and the electric field
 Calculate the electric field from the potential difference for a uniform field

 We've seen that the electric potential is defined as the amount of potential energy per unit charge a test particle has at a given location in an electric field, i.e.
 The equation for the electric potential of a point charge looks similar to the equation for the electric field generated for a point particle
 Recall that the electric potential V is a scalar and has no direction, whereas the electric field E is a vector.
 To find the total electric field, you must add the individual fields as vectors, taking magnitude and direction into account.
 Summing voltages rather than summing the electric simplifies calculations significantly, since addition of potential scalar fields is much easier than addition of the electric vector fields.

 Thus far, we have looked at electric field lines pertaining to isolated point charges.
 Each will have its own electric field, and the two fields will interact.
 The strength of the electric field depends proportionally upon the separation of the field lines.
 It should also be noted that at any point, the direction of the electric field will be tangent to the field line.
 Example a shows how the electric field is weak between like charges (the concentration of field lines is low between them).