Watch
Watching this resources will notify you when proposed changes or new versions are created so you can keep track of improvements that have been made.
Favorite
Favoriting this resource allows you to save it in the “My Resources” tab of your account. There, you can easily access this resource later when you’re ready to customize it or assign it to your students.
Application of Bernoulli's Equation: Pressure and Speed
For "ideal" flow along a streamline with no change in height, an increase in velocity results from a decrease in static pressure.
Learning Objective

Adapt Bernoulli's equation for flows that are either unsteady or compressible
Key Points
 The simplest form of Bernoulli's equation (steady and incompressible flow) states that the sum of mechanical energy, potential energy and kinetic energy, along a streamline is constant. Therefore, any increase in one form results in a decrease in the other.
 Bernoulli's equation considers only pressure and gravitational forces acting on the fluid particles. Therefore, if there is no change in height along a streamline, Bernoulli's equation becomes a balance between static pressure and velocity.
 The steadystate, incompressible Bernoulli equation, can be derived by integrating Newton's 2nd law along a streamline.
Terms

Ideal Fluid
An inviscid and incompressible fluid

viscosity
A quantity expressing the magnitude of internal friction in a fluid, as measured by the force per unit area resisting uniform flow.

incompressible
Unable to be compressed or condensed.
Full Text
Application of Bernoulli's Equation
The relationship between pressure and velocity in ideal fluids is described quantitatively by Bernoulli's equation, named after its discoverer, the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782). Bernoulli's equation states that for an incompressible and inviscid fluid, the total mechanical energy of the fluid is constant . (An inviscid fluid is assumed to be an ideal fluid with no viscosity. )
Bernoulli's Principle
A brief introduction to Bernoulli's Principle for students studying fluids.
The total mechanical energy of a fluid exists in two forms: potential and kinetic. The kinetic energy of the fluid is stored in static pressure,
Static pressure is simply the pressure at a given point in the fluid, dynamic pressure is the kinetic energy per unit volume of a fluid particle. Thus, a fluid will not have dynamic pressure unless it is moving. Therefore, if there is no change in potential energy along a streamline, Bernoulli's equation implies that the total energy along that streamline is constant and is a balance between static and dynamic pressure. Mathematically, the previous statement implies:
along a streamline. If changes there are significant changes in height or if the fluid density is high, the change in potential energy should not be ignored and can be accounted for with,
This simply adds another term to the above version of the Bernoulli equation and results in
Deriving Bernoulli's Equation
The Bernoulli equation can be derived by integrating Newton's 2nd law along a streamline with gravitational and pressure forces as the only forces acting on a fluid element. Given that any energy exchanges result from conservative forces, the total energy along a streamline is constant and is simply swapped between potential and kinetic.
Applying Bernoulli's Equation
Bernoulli's equation can be applied when syphoning fluid between two reservoirs . Another useful application of the Bernoulli equation is in the derivation of Torricelli's law for flow out of a sharp edged hole in a reservoir. A streamline can be drawn from the top of the reservoir, where the total energy is known, to the exit point where the static pressure and potential energy are known but the dynamic pressure (flow velocity out) is not.
Syphoning
Syphoning fluid between two reservoirs. The flow rate out can be determined by drawing a streamline from point ( A ) to point ( C ).
Adapting Bernoulli's Equation
The Bernoulli equation can be adapted to flows that are both unsteady and compressible. However, the assumption of inviscid flow remains in both the unsteady and compressible versions of the equation. Compressibility effects depend on the speed of the flow relative to the speed of sound in the fluid. This is determined by the dimensionless quantity known as the Mach number. The Mach number represents the ratio of the speed of an object moving through a medium to the speed of sound in the medium.
Key Term Reference
 Law
 Appears in these related concepts: Newton and His Laws, Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy, and Models, Theories, and Laws
 Mach number
 Appears in these related concepts: Sonic Booms and Speed of Sound
 Pressure
 Appears in these related concepts: SI Units of Pressure, Physics and Engineering: Fluid Pressure and Force, and Surface Tension and Capillary Action
 SI units
 Appears in these related concepts: Torque, Electric Flux, and Problem Solving
 application
 Appears in these related concepts: What is Potential Energy?, Work Done by a Variable Force, and Physics and Other Fields
 conservative force
 Appears in these related concepts: Gravity, Springs, and Fundamental Theorem for Line Integrals
 dynamic
 Appears in these related concepts: Mintzberg's Management Roles, The Big Five Personality Traits, and Competitive Dynamics
 element
 Appears in these related concepts: Transuranium Elements, The Periodic Table, and The Periodic Table
 energy
 Appears in these related concepts: Energy Transportation, Surface Tension, and Introduction to Work and Energy
 equation
 Appears in these related concepts: A General Approach, Equations and Inequalities, and Equations and Their Solutions
 fluid
 Appears in these related concepts: Pumps and the Heart, Surface Tension, and Drag
 force
 Appears in these related concepts: Glancing Collisions, Work, and Force of Muscle Contraction
 gravitational force
 Appears in these related concepts: ProblemSolving With Friction and Inclines, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, and Weight of the Earth
 inviscid
 Appears in this related concept: Torricelli's Law
 kinetic
 Appears in these related concepts: Friction: Static, The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter, and Sculpture
 kinetic energy
 Appears in these related concepts: Energy Conservation, The Ideal Gas Equation, and Types of Energy
 medium
 Appears in these related concepts: Waves, Painting, and The Role of the Artist
 potential
 Appears in these related concepts: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Conservative and Nonconservative Forces, and Linear Expansion
 potential energy
 Appears in these related concepts: Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials, Problem Solving With the Conservation of Energy, and Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference
 relative
 Appears in these related concepts: Relative Deprivation Approach, Relative Velocity, and Addition of Velocities
 static
 Appears in these related concepts: Translational Equilibrium, General ProblemSolving Tricks, and Motion
 velocity
 Appears in these related concepts: Rolling Without Slipping, RootMeanSquare Speed, and Force
Sources
Boundless vets and curates highquality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. This particular resource used the following sources:
Cite This Source
Source: Boundless. “Application of Bernoulli's Equation: Pressure and Speed.” Boundless Physics. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 22 Jul. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/physics/textbooks/boundlessphysicstextbook/fluiddynamicsanditsapplications11/bernoullisequation99/applicationofbernoullisequationpressureandspeed3574588/