Watch
Watching this resources will notify you when proposed changes or new versions are created so you can keep track of improvements that have been made.
Favorite
Favoriting this resource allows you to save it in the “My Resources” tab of your account. There, you can easily access this resource later when you’re ready to customize it or assign it to your students.
RL Circuits
An RL circuit consists of an inductor and a resistor, in series or parallel with each other, with current driven by a voltage source.
Learning Objectives

Describe currentvoltage relationship in the RL circuit

Describe structure of a resistorinductor circuit

Calculate energy that can be stored in an inductor
Key Points

The energy stored in an inductor is
$E=\frac{1}{2}LI^{2}$ . It takes time to build up stored energy in a conductor and time to deplete it. 
When a resistor and an inductor in series are connected to a voltage source, the timedependent current is given by
$I=I_{0}(1e^{\frac{t}{\tau}})$ ("turning on"). The final current after a long time is . 
The characteristic time constant is given by
$\tau=\frac{R}{L}$ , where R is resistance and L is inductance. This represents the time necessary for the current in a circuit just closed to go from zero to 0.632I_{0}, and 0.632 of the remainder in each interval τ. 
When the voltage source is disconnected from the inductor, the current will decay according to
$I=I_{0}e^{\frac{t}{\tau}}$ ("turning off"). In the first time interval τ the current falls by a factor of 1/e to 0.368I_{0}, and to 0.368 of the remainder each step τ.
Terms

inductor
A device or circuit component that exhibits significant selfinductance; a device which stores energy in a magnetic field.

characteristic time constant
Denoted by τ, in RL circuits it is given by
$ \tau=\frac{R}{L}$ where R is resistance and L is inductance. When a switch is closed, it is the time it takes for the current to decay by a factor of 1/e.
Full Text
RL Circuits
A resistorinductor circuit (RL circuit) consists of a resistor and an inductor (either in series or in parallel) driven by a voltage source.
Review
Recall that induction is the process in which an emf is induced by changing magnetic flux. Mutual inductance is the effect of Faraday's law of induction for one device upon another, while selfinductance is the the effect of Faraday's law of induction of a device on itself. An inductor is a device or circuit component that exhibits significant selfinductance.
Energy of an Inductor
We know from Lenz' law that inductances oppose changes in current. We can think of this situation in terms of energy. Energy is stored in a magnetic field. It takes time to build up energy, and it also takes time to deplete energy; hence, there is an opposition to rapid change. In an inductor, the magnetic field is directly proportional to current and to the inductance of the device. It can be shown that the energy stored in an inductor E_{ind} is given by:
Inductors in Circuits
We know that the current through an inductor L cannot be turned on or off instantaneously. The change in current changes flux, inducing an emf opposing the change (Lenz' law). How long does the opposition last? Current will flow and can be turned off, but how long does it take? shows a switching circuit that can be used to examine current through an inductor as a function of time.
When the switch is first moved to position 1 (at t=0), the current is zero and it eventually rises to I_{0}=V/R, where R is the total resistance of the circuit. The opposition of the inductor L is greatest at the beginning, because the amount of change is greatest. The opposition it poses is in the form of an induced emf, which decreases to zero as the current approaches its final value. The opposing emf is proportional to the amount of change left. This is the hallmark of an exponential behavior, and it can be shown with calculus that
is the current in an RL circuit when switched on. (Note the similarity to the exponential behavior of the voltage on a charging capacitor. ) The initial current is zero and approaches I_{0}=V/R with a characteristic time constant for an RL circuit, given by:
where has units of seconds, since 1H=1Ωs. In the first period of time τ, the current rises from zero to 0.632I_{0}, since I=I_{0}(1−e^{−1})=I_{0}(1−0.368)=0.632I_{0}. The current will go 0.632 of the remainder in the next time . A wellknown property of the exponential is that the final value is never exactly reached, but 0.632 of the remainder to that value is achieved in every characteristic time τ. In just a few multiples of the time , the final value is very nearly achieved, as the graph in (b) illustrates.
The characteristic time τ depends on only two factors, the inductance L and the resistance R. The greater the inductance L, the greater is, which makes sense since a large inductance is very effective in opposing change. The smaller the resistance R, the greater is. Again this makes sense, since a small resistance means a large final current and a greater change to get there. In both cases—large L and small R more energy is stored in the inductor and more time is required to get it in and out.
When the switch in (a) is moved to position 2 and cuts the battery out of the circuit, the current drops because of energy dissipation by the resistor. However, this is also not instantaneous, since the inductor opposes the decrease in current by inducing an emf in the same direction as the battery that drove the current. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of energy, (1/2)LI_{0}^{2}, stored in the inductor, and it is dissipated at a finite rate. As the current approaches zero, the rate of decrease slows, since the energy dissipation rate is I^{2}R. Once again the behavior is exponential, and I is found to be
In (c), in the first period of time =L/R after the switch is closed, the current falls to 0.368 of its initial value, since I=I_{0}e^{−1}=0.368I_{0}. In each successive time τ, the current falls to 0.368 of the preceding value, and in a few multiples of τ, the current becomes very close to zero.
In summary, when the voltage applied to an inductor is changed, the current also changes, but the change in current lags the change in voltage in an RL circuit.
Assign just this concept or entire chapters to your class for free.
Key Term Reference
 Component
 Appears in this related concepts: Adding and Subtracting Vectors Using Components, Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Time, and Cathode Ray Tube, TV and Computer Monitors, and the Oscilloscope
 Law
 Appears in this related concepts: TwoComponent Forces, Physics and Other Fields, and Models, Theories, and Laws
 battery
 Appears in this related concepts: Fuel Cells, The Battery, and Sources of EMF
 capacitor
 Appears in this related concepts: Resistors and Capacitors in Series, Impedance, and Capacitors with Dielectrics
 circuit
 Appears in this related concepts: Driven Oscillations and Resonance, Combinations of Capacitors: Series and Parallel, and Microwaves
 conductor
 Appears in this related concepts: Ideal Conductors, Semiconductors, and ParallelPlate Capacitor
 current
 Appears in this related concepts: Reporting LongTerm Liabilities, Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors, and The Junction Rule
 decay
 Appears in this related concepts: Radioactive Decay Series: Introduction, Models Using Differential Equations, and Sensory Registers
 energy
 Appears in this related concepts: Energy Transportation, Surface Tension, and Introduction to Work and Energy
 flux
 Appears in this related concepts: Surface Integrals of Vector Fields, The Divergence Theorem, and Maxwell's Equations
 induction
 Appears in this related concepts: Sociology and the Common Sense, The Law of Universal Gravitation, and Reasoning
 instantaneous
 Appears in this related concepts: Sinusoidal Nature of Simple Harmonic Motion, Polarization, and Instananeous Velocity: A Graphical Interpretation
 magnetic field
 Appears in this related concepts: Maxwell's Predictions and Hertz' Confirmation, Ampere's Law: Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire, and BrainScanning Techniques
 magnetic flux
 Appears in this related concepts: Inductance, Motional EMF, and Transformers
 mutual inductance
 Appears in this related concept: Inductance
 parallel
 Appears in this related concepts: Newton and His Laws, Superposition of Forces, and Combination Circuits
 period
 Appears in this related concepts: Number of Periods, Atomic Size, and Frequency of Sound Waves
 position
 Appears in this related concepts: Damped Harmonic Motion, Longitudinal Waves, and Graphical Interpretation
 resistance
 Appears in this related concepts: Resistors in Parallel, Resisitors in Series, and Ecology of Ecosystems
 resistor
 Appears in this related concepts: Power, The Loop Rule, and Introduction and Importance
 selfinductance
 series
 Appears in this related concepts: Taylor Polynomials, Charging a Battery: EMFs in Series and Parallel, and Finding the General Term
 voltage
 Appears in this related concepts: Conductors, The Millikan OilDrop Experiment, and Principles of Electricity
Sources
Boundless vets and curates highquality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. This particular resource used the following sources:
Cite This Source
Source: Boundless. “RL Circuits.” Boundless Physics. Boundless, 29 Dec. 2014. Retrieved 23 Apr. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/physics/textbooks/boundlessphysicstextbook/inductionaccircuitsandelectricaltechnologies22/accircuits162/rlcircuits5816216/