Faraday's Law of Induction and Lenz' Law
Faraday's law of induction states that the EMF induced by a change in magnetic flux is
Learning Objective

Express the Faraday’s law of induction in a form of equation
Key Points
 The minus in the Faraday's law means that the EMF creates a current I and magnetic field B that oppose the change in flux Δthis is known as Lenz' law.
 Faraday's law of induction is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators, and solenoids.
 Faraday's law states that the EMF induced by a change in magnetic flux depends on the change in flux Δ, time Δt, and number of turns of coils.
Terms

flux
The rate of transfer of energy (or another physical quantity) through a given surface, specifically electric flux or magnetic flux.

solenoid
A coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current flows through it.

electromotive force
(EMF)—The voltage generated by a battery or by the magnetic force according to Faraday's Law. It is measured in units of volts, not newtons, and thus, is not actually a force.
Full Text
Faraday's Law of Induction
Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators, and solenoids.
Faraday's experiments showed that the EMF induced by a change in magnetic flux depends on only a few factors. First, EMF is directly proportional to the change in flux Δ. Second, EMF is greatest when the change in time Δt is smallest—that is, EMF is inversely proportional to Δt. Finally, if a coil has N turns, an EMF will be produced that is N times greater than for a single coil, so that EMF is directly proportional to N. The equation for the EMF induced by a change in magnetic flux is
This relationship is known as Faraday's law of induction. The units for EMF are volts, as is usual.
Lenz' Law
The minus sign in Faraday's law of induction is very important. The minus means that the EMF creates a current I and magnetic field B that oppose the change in flux Δthis is known as Lenz' law. The direction (given by the minus sign) of the EMF is so important that it is called Lenz' law after the Russian Heinrich Lenz (1804–1865), who, like Faraday and Henry, independently investigated aspects of induction. Faraday was aware of the direction, but Lenz stated it, so he is credited for its discovery .
Lenz' Law
(a) When this bar magnet is thrust into the coil, the strength of the magnetic field increases in the coil. The current induced in the coil creates another field, in the opposite direction of the bar magnet's to oppose the increase. This is one aspect of Lenz's law—induction opposes any change in flux. (b) and (c) are two other situations. Verify for yourself that the direction of the induced Bcoil shown indeed opposes the change in flux and that the current direction shown is consistent with the right hand rule.
Energy Conservation
Lenz' law is a manifestation of the conservation of energy. The induced EMF produces a current that opposes the change in flux, because a change in flux means a change in energy. Energy can enter or leave, but not instantaneously. Lenz' law is a consequence. As the change begins, the law says induction opposes and, thus, slows the change. In fact, if the induced EMF were in the same direction as the change in flux, there would be a positive feedback that would give us free energy from no apparent source—conservation of energy would be violated.
Key Term Reference
 Law
 Appears in these related concepts: TwoComponent Forces, Physics and Other Fields, and Models, Theories, and Laws
 circuit
 Appears in these related concepts: Combinations of Capacitors: Series and Parallel, Microwaves, and Maxwell's Equations
 conservation
 Appears in these related concepts: Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Museums and Private Collections, and Linear Momentum
 current
 Appears in these related concepts: Reporting LongTerm Liabilities, The Battery, and Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors
 energy
 Appears in these related concepts: Surface Tension, Energy Transportation, and Introduction to Work and Energy
 equation
 Appears in these related concepts: Equations and Inequalities, Graphs of Equations as Graphs of Solutions, and What is an Equation?
 force
 Appears in these related concepts: Force of Muscle Contraction, Force, and First Condition
 induction
 Appears in these related concepts: The Sociological Approach, The Law of Universal Gravitation, and Reasoning
 inductor
 Appears in these related concepts: Energy in a Magnetic Field, Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field, and Inductance
 magnetic field
 Appears in these related concepts: Maxwell's Predictions and Hertz' Confirmation, Magnetic Force on a CurrentCarrying Conductor, and Ampere's Law: Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire
 magnetic flux
 Appears in these related concepts: Inductance, Motional EMF, and Transformers
 positive feedback
 Appears in these related concepts: Homeostatic Control, Convection, and Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy
 transformer
 Appears in these related concepts: Sources of EMF and Ferromagnetism
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