Examples of brain in the following topics:
- Cerebral circulation refers to the movement of blood through the network of blood vessels supplying the brain.
- CBF is tightly regulated to meet the brain's metabolic demands.
- Too much blood can raise intracranial pressure (ICP), which can compress and damage delicate brain tissue.
- In brain tissue, a biochemical cascade known as the ischemic cascade is triggered when the tissue becomes ischemic, potentially resulting in damage to and death of brain cells.
- Schematic representation of the circle of Willis, arteries of the brain, and brain stem.
- A brain tumor is a pathological abnormal growth of cells in the brain.
- An example of a highly treatable brain tumor subtype is medulloblastoma.
- A brain tumor is an intracranial solid neoplasm—a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells)—within the brain or the central spinal canal.
- Symptoms of solid neoplasms of the brain (primary brain tumors and secondary tumors alike) can be divided into three main categories:
- Chemotherapy: a treatment option for cancer, however it is seldom used to treat brain tumors as the blood and brain barrier prevents the drugs from reaching the cancerous cells
- The human brain is the center of the human nervous
number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and depression, are
thought to be associated with brain dysfunction, although the nature of such
brain anomalies is not well understood.
- The cerebral hemispheres form the
largest part of the human brain and are situated above most other brain structures.
- Demonstration of brain regions, including the four lobes and internal structures.
- Distinguish between the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem regions of the brain
- The human brain is composed of a right and a left hemisphere, and each participates in different aspects of brain function.
- The structural and chemical variance of a particular brain function, between the two hemispheres of one brain or between the same hemisphere of two different brains, is still being studied.
- Short of having a hemispherectomy (removal of a cerebral hemisphere), no one is a "left-brain only" or "right-brain only" person.
- Brain function lateralization is evident in the phenomena of right- or left-handedness, but a person's preferred hand is not a clear indication of the location of brain function.
- The human brain is divided into two hemispheres–left and right.
- Circumventricular organs are situated adjacent to the brain ventricles and sense concentrations of various compounds in the blood.
- Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are positioned at distinct sites around the margin of the ventricular system of the brain.
- They are among the few sites in the brain that have an incomplete blood-brain barrier.
- A useful mnemonic device for remembering this aspect of their function, though not the source of the name, is that they allow factors to circumvent' the blood-brain barrier.
sensory organs are able to sense
plasma molecules and pass that information into other regions of the
- Tight junctions present in the blood-brain barrier separate circulating blood from cerebrospinal fluid, regulating diffusion into the brain.
- The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
- In a later experiment, his student Edwin Goldmann found that
when dye is directly injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of animals' brains, the brains were dyed while the rest of the organs were unaffected.
- Several areas of the human brain are
not protected by the BBB.
- The BBB effectively protects the brain
from many common bacterial infections, so brain infections are very
- Then the brain makes a decision and sends nerve impulses to the motor areas to elicit responses.
- Many different methods help us analyze the brain and give an overview of the relationship between brain and behavior.
- Well-known techniques are EEG (electroencephalography), which records the brain's electrical activity, and fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) , which tells us more about brain functions.
- In the lesion method, patients with brain damage are examined to determine which brain structures were damaged and to what extent this influences the patient's behavior.
- Locations of brain areas historically associated with
- The CSF occupies the space between the arachnoid mater (the middle layer of the brain cover, the meninges) and the pia mater (the layer of the meninges closest to the brain).
- Buoyancy: The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400 grams; however, the net weight of the brain suspended in the CSF is equivalent to a mass of 25 grams.
- The brain therefore exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight.
- Protection: CSF protects the brain tissue from injury when jolted or hit.
- Chemical stability: CSF flows throughout the inner ventricular system in the brain and is absorbed back into the bloodstream, rinsing the metabolic waste from the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier.
- The epithalamus connects the limbic system to other parts of the brain.
- The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis
cerebri, epiphysis, conarium, or the "third eye”) is the only unpaired midline brain structure.
- The epithalamus acts as a connection between the limbic system and other parts of the brain.
- A brain sectioned in the median sagittal plane.
- In vertebrate anatomy, the brainstem is the most inferior portion of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the brain and spinal cord.
- Though small, it is an extremely important part of the brain, as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain
with the peripheral nervous system pass through the brainstem.
- The brain stem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function.
- In addition, upper motor neurons originate in the brain stem's vestibular, red, tectal, and reticular nuclei, which also descend and synapse in the spinal cord.
- Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.