HYPERINSULINEMIA This refers to an above-normal level of insulin in the blood of a person or animal.
Normal insulin secretion and blood levels are closely related to the level of glucose in the blood, so that a given level of insulin can be normal for one blood glucose level but low or high for another.
Hyperinsulinism can be associated with several types of medical problems, which can be roughly divided into two broad and largely non-overlapping categories: those tending toward reduced sensitivity to insulin and high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), and those tending toward excessive insulin secretion and low glucose levels (hypoglycemia).
The most common forms of hypoglycemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin or oral medications.
Among the causes are excessive insulin produced in the body (hyperinsulinemia), inborn error of metabolism, medications and poisons, alcohol, hormone deficiencies, prolonged starvation, alterations of metabolism associated with infection, and organ failure.
Hyperinsulinism refers to an above-normal level of insulin in the blood of a person or animal.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, T1DM, formerly insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose.
Eventually, type 1 diabetes is fatal unless treated with insulin.
Injection is the most common method of administering it; other methods are insulin pumps, and inhaled insulin.
TREATMENT Type 1 is treated with insulin replacement therapy—either via subcutaneous injection or insulin pump, along with attention to dietary management, typically including carbohydrate tracking, and careful monitoring of blood glucose levels using glucose meters.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas and is potentially fatal.
Three of the most important hormone axes in the endocrine system that are affected by aging include growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone/estradiol.
Growth Hormone (GH) / Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) Axis "Somatopause" is a term used to describe the change in GH/IGF-I axis which involves a decrease in production and sensitivity to GH and IGF-I.
Three hormone axes are affected by aging: growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I, cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone, and testoterone/estradiol.
This is accomplished via increased glucose levels from glucagon and decreased glucose levels from insulin.
This indicates that there is support of post-absorptive plasma glucose concentrations from glucagon, when in concert with insulin.
However, chronic insulin and glucagon deficiencies still remain victims of diabetes.
Therefore, insulin has been proven to contribute to the maintenance of postabsorptive plasma glucose concentrations, while high levels of glucagon are not required to onset diabetes.These findings do not distinguish the individual roles of insulin and of glucagon.
However, chronic insulin and glucagon deficiencies have been proven to cause hyperglycemia and, therefore, strongly suggest that insulin is the predominant factor of postabsorptive glucose levels.