Examples of peripheral chemoreceptors in the following topics:
- Chemoreceptor regulation of breathing is a form of negative feedback.
- There are many types of chemoreceptors in the body, but only a few of them are involved in respiration.
chemoreceptors: These include the aortic body, which detects changes in blood oxygen and
carbon dioxide, but not pH, and the carotid body which detects all three.
- There are several other examples in which chemoreceptor feedback applies.
- Chemoreceptor feedback also adjusts for oxygen levels to prevent hypoxia, though only the peripheral chemoreceptors sense oxygen levels.
- At high altitude, in the short term, the lack of oxygen is sensed by the peripheral chemoreceptors, which causes an increase in breathing rate (hyperventilation).
- Additionally, the peripheral chemoreceptors cause sympathetic nervous system stimulation, which causes the heart rate to increase while stroke volume decreases, and digestion is impaired.
- The respiratory centers contain chemoreceptors that detect pH levels in the blood and send signals to the respiratory centers of the brain to adjust the ventilation rate to change acidity by increasing or decreasing the removal of carbon dioxide (since carbon dioxide is linked to higher levels of hydrogen ions in blood).
- There are also peripheral chemoreceptors in other blood vessels that perform this function as well, which include the aortic and carotid bodies.
- An example is peripheral chemoreceptors, which detect changes in blood pH.
- The aortic arch contains peripheral baroreceptors
(pressure sensors) and chemoreceptors (chemical sensors) that relay
information concerning blood pressure, blood pH, and carbon dioxide
levels to the medulla oblongata of the brain.
CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood
flow and are an integral part of neuroendocrine function.
postrema: Site of the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting, sends major and
to sections of the brain involved in the autonomic control of cardiovascular
and respiratory activities.
secretory organs are responsible for
secreting hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral vascular
system using feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli.
eminence: Allows for the transport of neurohormones between the CSF and the
peripheral blood supply.
- Changes in diameter affect peripheral resistance, pressure, and flow, which affect cardiac output.
- Hormones such as
epinephrine and norepinephrine or changes in pH such as an acidification due to carbon dioxide accumulation in a tissue during exercise are detected by chemoreceptors.
- Sympathetic stimulation of the peripheral arterioles will also decrease, resulting in vasodilation.
- It will also trigger sympathetic stimulation of the peripheral vessels, resulting in vasoconstriction.
- These include the limbic system, which links physiological responses to psychological stimuli, chemoreceptor reflexes, generalized sympathetic stimulation, and parasympathetic stimulation.
- The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of
sensory receptors that extend from the central nervous system (CNS) to
communicate with other parts of the body.
- Our nervous system has sensory systems and organs that mediate each sense and these systems rely on chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, or thermoreceptors to detect the state of the internal or external environment.
- Describe what sensation means in terms of the peripheral nervous system
- Sensory receptors are primarily classified as chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, or photoreceptors.