Examples of proprioception in the following topics:
- Proprioception refers to the sense of knowing how one's body is positioned in three-dimensional space.
- The initiation of proprioception is the activation of a proprioreceptor in the periphery.
- Conscious proprioception is communicated by the posterior (dorsal) column–medial lemniscus pathway to the cerebrum.
- Unconscious proprioception is communicated primarily via the dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts to the cerebellum.
- An unconscious reaction is seen in the human proprioceptive reflex, or Law of Righting.
- The ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts convey proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum.
- The ventral spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum.
- The ventral tract (under L2/L3) gets its proprioceptive/fine touch/vibration information from a first order neuron, with its cell body in a dorsal ganglion.
- Proprioceptive information is taken to the spinal cord via central processes of the dorsal root ganglia (where first order neurons reside).
- Axon fibers from Clarke's nucleus convey this proprioceptive information in the spinal cord to the peripheral region of the posterolateral funiculus ipsilaterally until it reaches the cerebellum, where unconscious proprioceptive information is processed.
- This includes the corticospinal tract (motor), the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (fine touch, vibration sensation, and proprioception) and the spinothalamic tract (pain, temperature, itch, and crude touch).
- The ascending pathways from the body to the brain are the sensory pathways, including the spinothalamic tract for pain and temperature sensation and the dorsal column, fasciculus gracilis, and cuneatus for touch, proprioception, and pressure sensation.
perception gives information regarding cutaneous stimuli
(pressure, vibration, and temperature), kinesthetic
stimuli (limb movement), and proprioceptive
stimuli (position of the body).
- Proprioception, the kinesthetic sense, provides the parietal cortex of the brain with information on the relative positions of the parts of the body.
- Assuming proper proprioceptive function, at no time will the person lose awareness of where their hand actually is, even though it is not being detected by any of the other senses.
- Proprioception and touch are related in subtle ways, and their impairment results in deep and surprising deficits in perception and action.
- The term sensory ataxia is employed to indicate ataxia due to loss of proprioception.
- This is generally caused by dysfunction of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, because they carry proprioceptive information up to the brain.
- Sensory ataxia presents itself with an unsteady "stomping" gait with heavy heel strikes, as well as a postural instability that is usually worsened when the lack of proprioceptive input cannot be compensated for by visual input, such as in poorly lit environments.
- Fall-prevention advice includes exercise to tone deambulatory muscles and proprioception-improvement (body orientation sense) exercises.
- Fall-prevention advice includes exercise to tone deambulatory muscles; proprioception-improvement exercises; and equilibrium therapies may be included.
- Somatosensory organization is divided into the dorsal column–medial lemniscus tract (the touch/proprioception/vibration sensory pathway) and the anterolateral system, or ALS (the pain/temperature sensory pathway).
- Fall-prevention advice includes exercise to tone deambulatory muscles, proprioception-improvement exercises, and equilibrium therapies.
- It receives proprioception input from the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (including the spinocerebellar tract) and from the trigeminal nerve, as well as from visual and auditory systems.