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The cardiovascular centre forms part of the autonomicnervous system and
is responsible for regulation of cardiac output. Located in the medulla oblongata the cardiovascular centre
contains three distinct paired components: the cardioaccelerator centre, the cardioinhibitor center, and the vasomotor centre.
The cardioaccelerator centres stimulate cardiac function by regulating heart rate and stroke volume via sympathetic stimulation from the cardiac accelerator nerve. The cardioinhibitor centres slow cardiac function by decreasing heart rate and stroke volume via parasympathetic stimulation from the vagus nerve. The vasomotor centres control vessel tone or contraction of the smooth muscle in the tunica media. Changes in diameter affect peripheral resistance, pressure, and flow, which affect cardiac output. The majority of these neurons act via the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons. Although each centre functions independently, they are not anatomically distinct.
There are numerous stimuli that the cardiovascular centre can respond to. Hormones such as
epinephrine and norepinephrine or changes in pH such as an acidification due to carbon dioxide accumulation in a tissue during exercise are detected by chemoreceptors. Baroreceptors which detect stretch can also signal to the cardiovascular centre to alter heart rate.
Source: Boundless. “Role of the Cardiovascular Center.” Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Boundless, 22 Aug. 2016. Retrieved 26 Aug. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/cardiovascular-system-blood-vessels-19/control-of-blood-pressure-184/role-of-the-cardiovascular-center-911-6377/