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The movement which separates a limb or other part from the axis, or middle line, of the body.
Not only are a variety of movements possible with synovial joints, but in order to maintain flexibility, these joints need to be moved daily. Failure to maintain flexibility of joints makes movement more difficult and increases the probability of falls and injuries.
A synovial joint, also known as a diarthrosis, is the most common and most movable type of joint in the body of a mammal. As with most other joints, synovial joints achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones. Structural and functional differences distinguish synovial joints from cartilaginous joints (synchondroses and symphyses) and fibrous joints (sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses). The main structural differences between synovial and fibrous joints are the existence of capsules surrounding the articulating surfaces of a synovial joint and the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within those capsules (synovial cavities).
Several movements may be performed by synovial joints. Abduction is the movement away from the mid-line of the body. Adduction is the movement toward the middle line of the body . Extension is the straightening of limbs (increase in angle) at a joint. Flexion is bending the limbs (reduction of angle) at a joint . Rotation is a circular movement around a fixed point.
There are six types of synovial joints. Some are relatively immobile, but are more stable. Others have multiple degrees of freedom, but at the expense of greater risk of injury. The six types of joints include:
Gliding joints, which only allow sliding movement
Hinge joints, which allow flexion and extension in one plane
Pivot joints, which allow bone rotation about another
Condyloid joints, which allow flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements
Saddle joints, which permit the same movement as condyloid joints (and condylar joints and saddle joints combine to form compound joints)
Ball and socket joints, which allow all movements except gliding
synovial joints have lubricating capsules surrounding the articular surfaces of the joints, synovial joints are the most moveable of the body joints, synovial joints are also known as diarthroses, and synovial joints, unlike cartilaginous and fibrous joints, achieve movement at bony points of contact