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The tibia, or shin bone, spans the lower
leg articulating proximally with the femur and patella at the knee joint and
distally with the tarsal bones to form the ankle joint. It is the major weight
bearing bone of the lower leg.
Proximally there are five key feature of
the tibia, it widens and forms two condyles the lateral and medial which
articulate with the condyles of the femur. Between the two condyles is the
intercondylar fossa, a small grove, into which two intercondylar tubercles sit.
Numerous internal ligaments of the knee joint attach to these tubercles strengthening
it significantly. On the anterior surface of the proximal region and inferiorly
to the condyles is the tibial tuberosity to which the patella ligament
The shaft of the tibia is triangular and
the soleus muscle which gives the calf its characteristic shape originates on
the posterior surface.
Distally the tibia also widens to aid with
weight bearing and it displays two key features. The medial malleolus is a bony
projection which articulates with the tarsal bones to form the ankle joint.
Laterally there is the fibular notch which articulates with the fibula.
The fibula also spans the lower leg although
proximally it does not articulate with the femur or patella, serving more as an
attachment point for muscles rather than a weight bearing bone.
Proximally the fibula head articulates with
the lateral condyle of the tibia, the biceps femoris attaches to the fibula
head. As with the tibia the shaft of the fibula is triangular and numerus
muscles involved in extension and flexion of the foot originate from its
surface including the extensor digitorum longus, soleus and flexor hallucis
longus amongst others. Distally the fibula forms the lateral malleolus, which is
more prominent than the medial malleolus of the tibia and also articulates with
the tarsal bones forming the ankle joint.
Source: Boundless. “Tibia and Fibula (The Leg).” Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Boundless, 03 Aug. 2016. Retrieved 27 Sep. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/skeletal-system-parts-of-the-skeleton-7/the-lower-limb-88/tibia-and-fibula-the-leg-497-4321/