Watching this resources will notify you when proposed changes or new versions are created so you can keep track of improvements that have been made.
Favoriting this resource allows you to save it in the “My Resources” tab of your account. There, you can easily access this resource later when you’re ready to customize it or assign it to your students.
one of a pair almond-shaped glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film
Example nerves supplying parasympathetic fibers to the parasympathetic ganglia of the head include the oculomotor nerve (ciliary ganglion); the facial nerve (pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion); the glossopharyngeal nerve (otic ganglion); the vagus nerve (no named ganglion); and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (no named ganglion).
Parasympathetic ganglia are the autonomic ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, blue fibers). Most are small terminal ganglia or intramural ganglia, so named because they lie near or within (respectively) the organs they innervate. The exceptions are the four paired parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck (shown in ). These paired ganglia supply all parasympathetic innervation to the head and neck: ciliary ganglion (spincter pupillae, ciliary muscle), pterygopalatine ganglion (lacrimal gland, glands of nasal cavity), submandibular ganglion (submandibular and sublingual glands), and otic ganglion (parotid gland).
Nerve Innervation of the Autonomic Nervous System
The parasympathetic nervous system, shown in blue, is a division of the autonomic nervous system.
Each has three roots entering the ganglion (motor, sympathetic, and sensory roots) and a variable number of exiting branches. The motor root carries presynaptic parasympathetic nerve fibers (general visceral efferent fibers) that terminate in the ganglion by synapsing the postsynaptic fibers traveling to target organs. The sympathetic root carries postsynaptic sympathetic fibers (general visceral efferent fibers) that traverse the ganglion without synapsing. The sensory root carries general sensory fibers (general somaticafferent fibers) that also do not synapse in the ganglion. Some ganglia also carry special sensory fibers (special visceral afferent) for taste sensation.
Nerves supplying parasympathetic fibers to the parasympathetic ganglia of the head include the oculomotor nerve (ciliary ganglion), the facial nerve (pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion), the glossopharyngeal nerve (otic ganglion), the vagus nerve, and the pelvic splanchnic nerves.
Because of its location, the parasympathetic system is commonly referred to as having "craniosacral outflow," which stands in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, which is said to have "thoracolumbar outflow."
Parasympathetic Ganglia of the Head
The parasympathetic division has craniosacral "outflow," meaning that the neurons begin at the cranial nerves (CN3, CN7, CN9, CN10) and sacral (S2-S4) spinal cord. Pre- and post-ganglionic fibers and targets are depicted.
Parasympathetic nerve fibers arise from 4 different cranial nerves and 3 sacral spinal nerves, The parasympathetic division is one of two divisions that make up the autonomic nervous system, Most parasympathetic ganglia are called intramural ganglia and lie near or within the target organ, and Parasympathetic nerve fibers arise from all cranial nerves and spinal nerves along the spinal cord