The Hering–Breuer inflation reflex is a reflex triggered to prevent over-inflation of the lungs. Pulmonary stretch receptors present in the smooth muscle of the airways respond to excessive stretching of the lungs during large inspirations. Once activated, they send action potentials through large myelinated fibers of the paired vagus nerves to the inspiratory area in the medulla and apneustic area of the pons. In response, the inspiratory area is inhibited directly and the apneustic area is inhibited from activating the inspiratory area. This inhibits inspiration, allowing expiration to occur.
The neural circuit that controls the Hering–Breuer inflation reflex involves several regions of the central nervous system and both sensory and motor components of the vagus nerve . Increased sensory activity of the pulmonary-stretch lung afferents (via the vagus nerve) results in inhibition of the central inspiratory drive and thus inhibition of inspiration and initiation of expiration. The lung afferents also send inhibitory projections to the cardiac vagal motor neurons (CVM) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor vagal nucleus (DMVN). The CVMs, which send motor fibers to the heart via the vagus nerve, are responsible for tonic inhibitory control of heart rate. Thus, an increase in pulmonary stretch receptor activity leads to inhibition of the CVMs and an elevation of heart rate (tachycardia). This is a normal occurrence in healthy individuals and is known as sinus arrhythmia.
Early physiologists believed this reflex played a major role in establishing the rate and depth of breathing in humans. While this may be true for most animals, it is not the case for most adult humans at rest. However, the reflex may determine breathing rate and depth in newborns and in adult humans when tidal volume is more than 1 L, as when exercising. The Hering–Breuer deflation reflex serves to shorten exhalation when the lung is deflated. It is initiated either by stimulation of stretch receptors or stimulation of proprioceptors activated by lung deflation.