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Bone markings on the surface of the axial bones indicate attachments or articulations, or openings for nerves and blood vessels.
Categorize the bone markings by shape
Bone marking attachments or articulations include fossa, ramus, and condyle. Bone marking openings for nerves and blood vessels include fissure, foramen, and meatus.
Attachments and articulations - articular process: a projection that contacts an adjacent bone; articulation: the region where adjacent bones contact each other (e.g. joint); condyle: large, rounded articular process; crest: prominent ridge; eminence: relatively small projection or bump.
Epicondyle: projection near a condyle, but not part of the joint; facet: small, flattened articular surface; fossa: broad, shallow depressed area; line: long, thin projection or ridge, often with a rough surface; malleolus: protuberances of bones in the ankle; ramus: arm-like branch of bone.
Process: projection or prominent bump; spine: long, thin projection; suture: articulation between cranial bones; trochanter: tuberosities located on femur; tubercle: projection or bump with a roughened surface, smaller than a tuberosity; tuberosity: projection or bump with a roughened surface.
Openings - canal: long, tunnel-like foramen, a passage for nerves or blood vessels; foramen: opening through a bone; fovea: small pit on the head of a bone; labyrinth: cavity within a bone; meatus: short canal that dead ends, so it has only the entrance; sinus: cavity within a cranial bone.
There are a variety of bone markings on the surface of the axial bones that indicate attachments or articulations (fossa, ramus, condyle), or openings for nerves and blood vessels (fissure, foramen, meatus) . The following description of bone surface markings is done in alphabetical order:
Examples of Bone Markings
The posterior view of this femur shows several examples of bone markings: trochanter, epicondyles, crest/ridge, among others.
The articular process is a projection that contacts an adjacent bone.
Articulation is the region where adjacent bones contact each other such as a joint.
A canal is a long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or blood vessels.
A condyle is a large, rounded articular process.
A crest is prominent ridge.
An eminence is a relatively small projection or bump.
An epicondyle is a projection near a condyle, but not part of the joint.
A facet is a small, flattened articular surface.
A foramen is an opening through a bone.
A fossa is a broad, shallow depressed area.
A fovea is a small pit on the head of a bone
A labyrinth is a cavity within a bone.
A line is a long, thin projection, often with a rough surface; also known as a ridge.
A malleolus is one of two specific protuberances of bones in the ankle.
A meatus is a short canal that finishes as a dead end, so it has only the entrance.
A process is a relatively-large projection or prominent bump.
A ramus is an arm-like branch off the body of a bone.