There are three major regions of the kidney: renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal pelvis. The outer, granulated layer is the renal cortex. The cortex stretches down in between a radially striated inner layer. The inner radially striated layer is the renal medulla. This contains pyramid shaped tissue called the renal pyramids, separated by renal columns. Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. The initial filtering portion of a nephron is the renal corpuscle, located in the cortex, which is followed by a renal tubule that passes from the cortex deep into the medullary pyramids. Part of the renal cortex, a medullary ray is a collection of renal tubules that drain into a single collecting duct. The ureters are continuous with the renal pelvis and are the very center of the kidney.
Cortex & Medulla
Externally, the kidneys are surrounded by three layers. The outermost layer is a tough connective tissue layer called the renal fascia. The second layer is called the perirenal fat capsule, which helps anchor the kidneys in place. The third and innermost layer is the renal capsule. Internally, the kidney has three regions—an outer cortex, a medulla in the middle, and the renal pelvis in the region called the hilum of the kidney . The hilum is the concave part of the bean-shape where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidney; it is also the point of exit for the ureters, urine-bearing tubes that exit the kidney and empty into the urinary bladder.
The renal cortex is granular due to the presence of nephrons—the functional unit of the kidney. The medulla consists of multiple pyramidal tissue masses, called the renal pyramids. In between the pyramids are spaces called renal columns through which the blood vessels pass. The tips of the pyramids, called renal papillae, point toward the renal pelvis. There are, on average, eight renal pyramids in each kidney. The renal pyramids along with the adjoining cortical region are called the lobes of the kidney. The renal pelvis leads to the ureter on the outside of the kidney. On the inside of the kidney, the renal pelvis branches out into two or three extensions called the major calyces, which further branch into the minor calyces.
More specifically, the cortex and medulla are composed of masses of tiny tubes called kidney tubules or nephrons. At one end of each nephron, in the cortex of the kidney, is a cup shaped structure called the (Bowman's or renal) capsule. It surrounds a tuft of capillaries called the glomerulus that carries high-pressure blood. Together the glomerulus and capsule act as a blood-filtering device. After entering the glomerulus the filtered fluid flows along a coiled part of the tubule (the proximal convoluted tubule) to a looped portion (the Loop of Henle) and then to the collecting tube via a second length of coiled tube (the distal convoluted tubule). From the collecting ducts the urine flows into the renal pelvis and enters the ureter.