5.1 Slavery and Civil Rights
Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement
Slavery continued until 1865, when abolitionists argued against its conditions as violating Christian principals and rights to equality.
Abolitionism and the Women's Rights Movement
Many women involved in the early abolitionist movement went on to be important leaders in the early women's rights and suffrage movements.
The Civil War Amendments
The Civil War Amendments protected equality for emancipated slaves by banning slavery, defining citizenship, and ensuring voting rights.
Separate but Equal
Separate but equal laws supported segregation in the south by stating that providing comparable public services did not violate equal rights.
Organizing for Equality: The NAACP
The NAACP, which was founded in 1909, advocates for full civil liberties and an end to racial discrimination and violence.
Litigating for Equality after World War II
Post-WWI civil rights were expanded through court rulings such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which helped integrate public schools.
5.2 The Civil Rights Movement
Separate but Equal
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in American constitutional law that justified systems of segregation.
Brown v. Board and School Integration
Brown v. Board of Education was a Supreme Court case which declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional.
The Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement aimed to outlaw racial discrimination against black Americans, particularly in the South.
The Civil Rights Acts
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed forms of discrimination against women and minorities.
The Civil Rights Movement influenced racial integration, but tensions with affirmative action and racism still affect racial relations.
5.3 The Women's Rights Movement
The Women's Rights Movement
The women's rights movement refers to political struggles to achieve rights claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.
Women and Gender Discrimination
Gender discrimination refers to prejudice or discrimination based on gender, as well as conditions that foster stereotypes of gender roles.
Women's Suffrage Movement
The Women's Suffrage Movement refers to social movements around the world dedicated to achieving voting rights for women.
The Feminist Movement
The feminist movement refers to a series of campaigns for cultural, political, economic, and social equality for women.
Women in the Workplace
Women's participation in the workforce has been a relatively recent phenomenon and is still associated with many continuing challenges.
Women in American Politics
In recent decades, women have served in more political posts and organizations, but they remain underrepresented in comparison to men.
5.4 Other Groups' Civil Rights
Policies regarding immigration, language, and voting are modern-day civil rights issues that affect Latinos living in the United States.
Civil Rights controversies surrounding Asian Americans include early immigration restrictions and xenophobia during the Second World War.
Historical policies of American expansion have infringed upon the rights of Native Americans and have lead to long-term inequality.
Disabled Americans face limited access to public places and institutions that civil rights legislation seeks to address.
The elderly, or senior citizens, are vulnerable to civil rights abuses due to a propensity for sickness, disability, and poverty.
Gays and Lesbians
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have attained many civil protections, but are still subject to discrimination.
Immigrants are vulnerable to civil rights violations, often due to low socioeconomic status, language barriers, or xenophobia.
5.5 Affirmative Action
The Supreme Court and the Burden of Proof
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States and has ultimate jurisdiction over all courts that involve a contest of federal law.
Referenda on Affirmative Action
Affirmative action measures, particularly those pertaining to higher education, have been politically controversial in the United States.
Affirmative Action Tested
Opponents have tested affirmative action programs politically and legally through referendums and lawsuits since the 1970s.
Strict Scrutiny Applied
The legal standard of strict scrutiny, the most stringent standard of judicial review, must be used in all court cases involving affirmative action.
The Diversity Issue
Debates over affirmative action center around the question of whether diversity in the classroom merits a program of state intervention.
The Supreme Court Revisits the Issue
The first affirmative action case to come before the Supreme Court dealt with affirmative action in employment.
States and the federal government have argued about the appropriate implementation of affirmative action policies.
The Bakke Case
The 1978 Supreme Court case Bakke was the first case before the Court of affirmative action in higher education.
The End of Affirmative Action
Since Bakke, the Supreme Court has been questioning the constitutionality of affirmative action programs.