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James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 (O.S. March 5) – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and political theorist, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was a Founding Father, soldier, economist, and political philosopher, one of America's first constitutional lawyers and the first United States Secretary of the Treasury.
During 1788 and 1789, there were 85 essays published in several New York Statenewspapers, designed to convince New York and Virginia voters to ratify the Constitution. The three people who are generally acknowledged for writing these essays are Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Since Hamilton, Madison, and Jay were considered Federalists, this series of essays became known as The Federalist Papers. One of the most famous Federalist Papers is Federalist No. 10, which was written by Madison and argues that the checks and balances in the Constitution prevent the government from falling victim to factions. Anti-Federalists did not support ratification. Madison also wrote Federalist No. 51, under the name "Publius" or "Public. " He argues here that each branch of government would not be dependent on other branches and, thus, forming factions within the national government. That way, the government can work in the best interests of the people and not each other.
The Federalist Papers
Title page of the first printing of the Federalist Papers.
Many individuals, such as Patrick Henry, George Mason, and Richard Henry Lee, were Anti-Federalists. The Anti-Federalists had several complaints with the Constitution. One of their biggest was that the Constitution did not provide for a Bill of Rights protecting the people. They also thought the Constitution gave too much power to the federal government and too little to individual states. A third complaint of the Anti-Federalists was that senators and the president were not directly elected by the people, and the House of Representatives was elected every two years instead of annually. On December 7, 1787, Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution. The vote was unanimous, 30-0. Pennsylvania followed on December 12, and New Jersey ratified on December 18, also in a unanimous vote. By summer 1788, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, and New York had ratified the Constitution, and it went into effect. On August 2, 1788, North Carolina refused to ratify the Constitution without amendments, but it relented and ratified it a year later.
Government by the people can only succeed if the people are sufficiently educated., Government must protect private property to free people from the state of nature, but doing so can create inequality., The conflict between Federalists and Anti-Federalists foreshadowed the danger of factions and parties., and A government can properly function under a system of “checks and balances.”
a well-constructed union would break and control the violence of faction, a "dangerous vice" in popular governments., a closer union would greatly benefit American commerce, the president would be elected for a term of four years and would not have the life tenure of a hereditary monarch., a national court system would prevent state courts from becoming biased or regionally oriented in judging national issues., and a separation of powers would exist between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.
convince the colonists to support independence from Great Britain., persuade the French government to support the colonies in the Revolutionary War., assemble a critical mass of delegates to attend the Constitutional Convention., convince southern slave owners that slavery was undemocratic and undermined liberty., and convince the public to support the Constitution.