Definition of punishment
The act or process of punishing, imposing and/or applying a sanction, for an undesired behavior, when conditioning toward a desired behavior.
Examples of punishment in the following topics:
- Shaping relies heavily on the reinforcement or punishment of successive approximations of certain behaviors.
- Both types of reinforcement encourage a behavior, and thus differ from punishment which discourages behaviors.
- Punishment can also be positive or negative.
- Positive punishment inflicts an undesirable consequence on the participant, whereas negative punishment removes access to the desired reward.
- Each type of reinforcement or punishment is meant to train the subject towards a particular target behavior.
- Skinner developed the idea of operant conditioning in 1937, when he tested the learning of rats through reinforcement and punishment in what is now called a Skinner Box.Classical Conditioning is a form of learning in which a subject comes to respond to a previously neutral stimulus by continually pairing it with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response.
- The modeling process involves a person being subjected to watching other individuals who demonstrate behavior that is considered adaptive and that should be adopted by the client .Aversion therapy and punishment is a technique in which an aversive (painful or unpleasant) stimulus is used to decrease unwanted behaviors from occurring.
- Examples of the type of negative stimulus or punishment that can be used is shock therapy treatments, aversive drug treatments, and response cost contingent punishment (which involves taking away a reward).Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is using behavioral methods to modify certain behaviors that are seen as being important socially or personally.Social skills training teaches clients skills to access natural reinforcers and lessen life punishment.
- Any behavior that results in a punishment is deemed as bad, whereas any behavior that results in a reward is deemed as good.
- Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience - In this stage, children find it hard to distinguish between two separate moral points of view, especially in a moral dilemma.
- The focus continues to be on behaving according to adult rules and avoiding punishment.
- Punishment was the opposite of reinforcement: when the subject performed an undesired behavior, it was administered a negative or aversive consequence.
- Although negative reinforcement and punishment seem similar, punishment decreases behavior whereas negative reinforcement increases it.
- For example, if an obnoxious noise is played in a cage and a rat presses a lever to make the noise stop, then he has been negatively reinforced.Operant conditioning also focuses on the cessation of behaviors through punishment and extinction.
- Punishment involves the introduction of a negative stimulus that will reduce the behavior (such as getting a speeding ticket), or the removal of a positive stimulus (such as taking away toys).
- Skinner theorized that if a behavior is followed by reinforcement, the behavior will be repeated, but if it is followed by punishment, the behavior will not be repeated.
- He also believed that this learned association could end, or become extinct, if the reinforcement or punishment was removed.To prove this, he placed rats in a box with a lever, that when tapped, released a pellet of food.
- HabituationHabituation occurs when an individual ceases to respond to a stimulus after a prolonged period of time, if the stimulus is not associated with any reward or punishment.
- Behaviorism is based on both classical conditioning (in which a stimulus is conditioned to create a response) and operant conditioning (in which behavior is reinforced through a particular reward or punishment).
- Types of Reinforcement Operant conditioning can be enacted using one of two methods: reinforcement, which increases the frequency of a behavior; and punishment, which decreases the frequency of a behavior.
- Stage 1 is known as the punishment and obedience orientation, which focuses on the child's desire to obey rules and avoid being punished.