12.1 Introduction to Motivation
Motivation is a psychological factor which arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and optimize well-being.
Comparing Motivation to Emotion
Emotions is often the driving force behind motivation, both positive or negative.
12.2 Approaches to Explaining Motivation
According to evolutionary psychology, individuals are motivated to engage in behaviors that maximize their genetic fitness.
Drive reduction theory says that humans are motivated to reduce the state of tension caused when certain biological needs are not satisfied.
The body elicits motivation by increasing physiological arousal through traits like impulsivity and reward sensitivity.
Incentive Theory and Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
According to incentive theory, intrinsic and extrinsic motivators both provide some sort of incentive for completing a task.
Cognitive and Achievement Approach
Motivation is fueled by internal processes including achievement and contradicting cognitions (i.e., cognitive dissonance).
Social Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy
Maslow’s theory is based on the premise that human beings are motivated by needs that are hierarchically ranked.
Temporal Motivation Theory
Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT) emphasizes the impact of time and deadlines on our motivation to complete tasks.
12.3 Hunger Motivation
Hunger, Eating, and Weight
Hunger is divided into long-term and short-term regulation, each stimulating different hormone responses from the hypothalamus.
Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that include potentially life-threatening behavioral, psychological, and physiological disturbances.
12.4 Sexual Motivation
Biological factors, such as hormones, play an important role in the sexual motivation of humans.
Though biology plays an important role, the way in which sexual motivation is expressed and acted upon is highly influenced by culture.
Sexual orientation, or a person's emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex (male or female), influences their sexual motivation.