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Sensation involves the relay of information from sensory receptors to the brain and enables a person to experience the world around them.
Provide an overview of how the brain and sensory receptors work together in the process of sensation.
Differentiate between the processes of perception and sensation.
Sensation is input about the physical world registered by our sensory receptors, such as our eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and skin.
Perception is the process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interprets sensations; it is often influenced by learning, memory, emotions, and expectations.
The human senses include sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch, as well as kinesthesia and the vestibular senses.
Input from our senses is taken in through the body's sensory receptors, which then convert the input energy into neural impulses. These neural impulses enter the cerebral cortex of the brain, where they are interpreted and organized in the process of perception.
Sensation and perception are two separate processes that are very closely related. Sensation is input about the physical world obtained by our sensory receptors. Perception is the process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interprets these sensations. Senses are the physiological methods of perception. The perception of these senses varies from one person to another because each person's brain may interpret the stimuli differently based on learning, memory, emotions, and expectations.
There are five classical human senses: sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. Two other senses, kinesthesia and the vestibular senses, have become widely recognized by scientists. Kinesthesia is the perception of the positioning of the parts of the body, often expertly shown by professional athletes and commonly known as "body awareness." Vestibular senses detect gravity, linear acceleration such as speeding up or slowing down on a straight road, and rotary acceleration such as speeding up or slowing down around a curve; they assist with balance.
Sensory information (such as taste, light, odor, pressure, vibration, heat, and pain) is perceived through the body's sensory receptors. These sensory receptors include the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and hands and feet, or skin as a whole. Rods and conesin the retina of the eye perceive light; ciliain the ear perceive sound; chemical receptorsin the nasal cavities and mouth perceive smell and taste; and muscle spindles, as well as pressure, vibration, heat, and pain receptors in the skin perceive the many sensations of touch.
Specialized cells in the sensory receptors convert the input energy into neural impulses. These neural impulses enter the cerebral cortex of the brain, which is made up of layers of neurons with many inputs. These layers of neurons in the function like mini microprocessors, and it is their job to organize the sensations and interpret them in the process of perception.
The motor homunculus is a physical representation of the human body, located within the brain. It is a neurological "map" of the anatomical divisions of the body. At the primary motor cortex, motor representation is arranged in an orderly manner, inverted. The toes are represented at the top of the cerebral hemisphere, while the mouth is represented at the bottom of the hemisphere, closer to the lateral sulcus. These representations lie along a fold in the cortex called the central sulcus. The homunculus is split in half, with motor representation for each side of the body represented on the the opposite side of the brain.
The amount of cortex devoted to any given body region is proportional to how many nerves are in that region, not to the body region's physical size. Areas of the body with greater or more complex sensory or motor connections are represented as larger in the homunculus. Those with fewer or less complex connections are represented as smaller. The resulting image is that of a distorted human body, with disproportionately huge hands, lips, and face (because those regions have huge numbers of nerve endings.)
Perception is the reception of sensory information from the outside world., Perception is a simplistic function of the nervous system., Perception is made up of specialized cells called sensory receptors., and Perception can be shaped by learning, memory, emotions, and expectations.