Sensation and perception are related but different concepts. Sensation is the input about the physical world obtained by our sensory receptors. Perception is the process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interprets sensations. Senses are the physiological methods of perception, and the perception of these senses can vary from one person to another because each person's brain may interpret the stimuli differently based on learning, memory, emotions, and expectations.
There are five classical human senses: sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. Two other senses, kinesthesia and the vestibular senses, have become widely recognized by scientists. Kinesthesia is the sense of the position of the parts of the body, often expertly shown by professional athletes and commonly known as "body awareness". Vestibular senses detect gravity, linear acceleration such as speeding up or slowing down on a straight road, and rotary acceleration such as speeding up or slowing down around a curve; they also provide balance.
Input from these senses - such as taste, light, odor, pressure, vibration, heat, and pain - is perceived through the body's sensory receptors. These sensory receptors include the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and hands and feet, or skin as a whole. Rods and cones in the retina of the eye perceive light; cilla in the ear perceive sound; chemical receptors in the nasal cavities and mouth perceive smell and taste; and muscle spindles, as well as pressure, vibration, heat, and pain receptors in the skin perceive the many sensations of touch.
Specialized cells in the sensory receptors convert the input energy into neural impulses. These neural impulses enter the cerebral cortex of the brain, which is made up of layers of neurons with many inputs. These layers of neurons in the cerebral cortex function like mini microprocessors, and it is here that all sensations are organized and interpreted in the process of perception .