Defining a sociological problem helps frame a question to be addressed in the research process.
Sociological researchers review past work in their area of interest and include this "literature review" in the presentation of their research.
A hypothesis is a potential answer to your research question; the research process helps you determine if your hypothesis is true.
The research design is the methodology and procedure a researcher follows to answer their sociological question.
Defining the sample and collecting data are key parts of all empirical research, both qualitative and quantitative.
Data analysis in sociological research aims to identify meaningful sociological patterns.
Sociological research publications generally include a literature review, an overview of the methodology followed, the results and an analysis of those results, and conclusions.