African-American Great Migration
Definition of African-American Great Migration
The Great Migration was the movement of six million African-Americans out of the rural southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970. Some historians label the period between 1910 and 1930 as the first Great Migration, in which about 1.6 million migrants left mostly rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities.
Examples of African-American Great Migration in the following topics:
- Du Bois would go on to be a prominent leader in the pursuit of African-American civil rights.
- After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African-American to earn a doctorate degree, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University.
- Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks.
- Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite.
- Du Bois also wrote an editorial supporting the African-American Great Migration, the movement of blacks from the southern U.S. to the Northeast, Midwest, and West, because he felt it would help blacks escape southern racism, find economic opportunities, and assimilate into American society.
- Du Bois was a prominent African-American intellectual who was active in the early 20th century, promoting full civil equality.
- In most instances, whites attacked African-Americans.
- By 1919, an estimated 500,000 African-Americans had emigrated from the South to the industrial cities of the North and Midwest in the first wave of the African-American Great Migration, which continued until 1940.
- African-Americans were also migrating to escape the lynchings, Jim Crow laws, and poor economy of the rural South.
- African-American workers filled new positions in expanding industries, such as the railroads, as well as many jobs formerly held by whites.
- Authorities often viewed African-Americans' advocacy of racial equality and labor rights with alarm.
- African-American Migration The First Great Migration From 1910 to 1970, approximately 6 million African-Americans moved out of the rural Southern U.S. into the Northeast, Midwest, and West in what historians have called the African-American Great Migration.
- Some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration (1910–1930), numbering about 1.6 million migrants who left mostly rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities, and a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970), in which 5 million or more people moved, including many to California and various western cities.
- The Great Migration created the first large urban black communities in the North.
- Changing Demographics When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, less than eight percent of the African-American population lived in the northeastern or midwestern United States.
- Between 1910 and 1930, the African-American population increased by about 40% in northern states as a result of the migration, mostly in the major cities.
- In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Mexican population in the U.S. grew and African-Americans migrated to the North.
- South for African-Americans who had formerly been slaves.
- Jim Crow Laws in the Early 1920s While the separation of African-Americans from the general population was becoming legalized and formalized during the Progressive Era (1890s–1920s), it was also becoming customary.
- The Jim Crow laws were a major factor in the African-American Great Migration during the early part of the 20th century.
- Opportunities were so limited in the South that African-Americans moved in great numbers to northern cities to seek a better life.
- Great Migration The Great Migration refers to the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970.
- By the end of the Second Great Migration, usually considered to have occurred between 1940 and 1970, African Americans had become an urbanized population.
- Effects of the Migration Demographic Changes The African-American Great Migration created the first large, urban black communities in the North.
- By the start of the Great Depression in 1929, the city's African American population had increased to 120,000.
- Discrimination and Working Conditions While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination.
- The Great Migration was the movement of African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West.