In 1870 there were only two American cities with a population of more than 500,000, but by 1900 there were six, and three of these, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia had over one million inhabitants.
Not only did urbanization cause cities to grow in population, it also caused cities to grow in building size.
When cities grew in population, their problems with pollution and disease increased exponentially.
Many of the population and economic gains during the nineteenth century were made possible by immigration, as hundreds of thousands of men and women came seeking the job opportunities and prospect of a better life that America provided.
California became a state in 1850 with a population of about 90,000.
Population increases and economic gains during the nineteenth century were made possible by immigrant labor.
By 1720, South Carolina's population was 65% enslaved, with planters cultivating rice and other cash crops along the southeastern coast while backwoods subsistence farmers were pushed out to the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry in the later part of the 18th century.
The principle cash crop harvested by the South Carolina slave population in the early eighteenth century was rice, a crop that probably originated in Madagascar and had been introduced into South Carolina by 1694.
South Carolina's economy was based primarily on rice production, requiring extensive use of slaves and a very large slave population.
Historians estimate that between 15 and 20 percent of the European-American colonists supported the Crown; some historians estimate that as much as one third of the population was sympathetic to the British, if not vocally.
During the American Revolutionary War, British Loyalists made up approximately 15 - 20 percent of the population of the thirteen colonies.