Examples of Trail of Broken Treaties in the following topics:
- Many of the demands of the movement related to the U.S. government's obligation to honor its treaties with the sovereign American Indian nations.
- According to the IAT, the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) between the U.S. and the Sioux should have returned all retired, abandoned, or out-of-use federal land to the American Indian people from whom it was acquired.
- The organization was formed to address various issues concerning the American Indian urban community in Minneapolis, including poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment.
- In 1972, AIM activists marched across the country on what was called the Trail of Broken Treaties.
- During this time, AIM developed and publicized a 20-point list to summarize its issues with federal treaties and promises.
- Many other treaties of this nature quickly followed.
- This abrupt and forced removal resulted in the deaths of more than 4,000 Cherokees on what became known as the "Trail of Tears."
- In 1987, about 2,200 miles of trails were authorized by federal law to mark the removal of seventeen detachments of the Cherokee people.
- Called the "Trail of Tears National Historic Trail," it traverses portions of nine states and includes land and water routes.
- This map illustrates the route of the Trail of Tears.
- Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which authorized the President to negotiate treaties that exchanged Indian tribal lands in the eastern states for lands west of the Mississippi River.
- In all, Native American tribes signed 94 treaties during Jackson's two terms, ceding thousands of square miles to the federal government.
- In order to avoid expulsion, a faction of Cherokees signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835, obtaining money in exchange for their land.
- Along the way, many died of disease and deprivation in what became known as the "Trail of Tears".
- Identify the demographic groups in which Jacksonian ideals found most favor and describe the Trail of Tears
- Before the Civil War, the western United States had been penetrated by U.S. forces and settlers via the Santa Fe Trail and the Oregon Trail, and as a result of the Mormon emigration to Utah and the settlement of California and Oregon.
- In the case of the Santa Fe Trail, this was due to the friendly relationship between the Bents of Bent's Fort and the Cheyenne and Arapaho, and in the case of the Oregon Trail, to the peace established by the Treaty of Fort Laramie.
- Signed in 1851 between the United States and the Plains Indians and the Indians of the northern Rocky Mountains, the treaty allowed passage by migrants and the building of roads and the stationing of troops along the Oregon Trail.
- Prospectors, motivated by the economic panic of 1873, began to trickle into the Black Hills in violation of the Fort Laramie Treaty.
- Grant to honor existing treaties and stem the flow of miners into American Indian territories.
- Such rapid exploration and expansion of migration into the Southeast in the 1820s and 1830s, and ongoing conflict with local Native American tribes, forced the federal government to deal with the so-called "Indian question. " Since the Greenville Treaty in the 1790s, Native Americans were under federal control but remained independent of state governments, which demanded control over the placement of Indian tribes in their territories.
- This law, on paper, provided for voluntary displacement of Indian tribes to the West and had safeguards for the rights of Indians.
- In 1821, independent Mexico assumed control over Spain's northern possessions that stretched from Texas to California (including the lucrative Santa Fe trade routes that saw the transportation and exchange of manufactured goods, silver, furs, and mules and connected Mexico to California via the Old Spanish Trail).
- The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded the territories of California and New Mexico to the United States for $18.5 million.
- Analyze the waves of westward movement in the early 19th-century and the displacements of native peoples that movement brought about
- In 1842, Secretary of State Daniel Webster negotiated the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain, which concluded where the border between Maine and Canada lay.
- Other significant events included the opening of the Oregon Trail, the Mormon Emigration to Utah in 1846–'47, the California Gold Rush of 1849, the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859, and the completion of the nation's First Transcontinental Railroad on May 10, 1869.
- President Tyler entered negotiations with the Republic of Texas for an annexation treaty, which he submitted to the Senate.
- Of the 29 Whig senators, 28 voted against the treaty with only one Whig, a southerner, supporting it.
- He called for Congress to annex Texas by joint resolution rather than by treaty.
- War between Britain and France had been formally declared on May18th; nearly two years after the first fighting had broken out in the Ohio Country.
- Having received reports of the clashes in North America and having secured the support of Great Britain with an Anglo-Prussian alliance, Frederick II crossed the border of Saxony, one of the small German states in league with Austria.
- In 1763 a peace settlement was reached at the Treaty of Hubertusburg ending the war in central Europe.
- The Anglo-French hostilities were ended in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, which involved a complex series of land exchanges, the most important being France's cession to Spain of Louisiana, and to Great Britain the rest of New France except for the islands of St.
- 1763 peace settlement reached at the Treaty of Hubertusburg ending the war in central Europe.
- John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States, was the son of former President John Adams.
- However, opposition from the states'-rights faction of a hostile Congress limited many of his proposals.
- In contrast, Jackson and Martin Van Buren instigated the policy of American Indian removal to the West, later leading to the Trail of Tears.
- During his tenure as secretary of state, Adams was the chief designer of the Monroe Doctrine.
- Among his diplomatic achievements were treaties of reciprocity with a number of nations, including Denmark, Mexico, the Hanseatic League, the Scandinavian countries, Prussia, and Austria.
- Penn sought to create a liberal frame of government and attract all sorts of people, including many Quakers.
- Succeeding Frames of Government, also known as the Charter of Privileges, were produced in 1683, 1696, and 1701.
- Provincial Secretary James Logan planned to grab as much land as they could get by hiring the three fastest runners in the colony to run out the purchase on a trail which had been cleared by other members of the colony beforehand.
- This netted the Penns 1,200,000 acres (4,900 km2) of land in what is now northeastern Pennsylvania, an area roughly equivalent to the size of the state of Rhode Island .
- The Lenape tribe fought for the next 19 years to annul the treaty, but to no avail.
- Following the Battle of White Marsh, the last major engagement of 1777, General George Washington's troops moved to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 25 miles northwest of Philadelphia, to wait out the winter.
to a shortage of supplies that left approximately one in three men without
shoes, many soldiers left a trail of bloody footprints behind them during the
march into town.
of shortages of clothing and blankets, many soldiers injured from previous
battles died from exposure.
- General Henry Knox, Washington’s Chief of Artillery, wrote that hundreds of horses
either starved to death or perished as a result of exhaustion.
February 6, 1778, the French signed an alliance treaty with the 13 colonies,
which greatly enhanced the military and monetary support the Continental Army
needed to continue the war effort.