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In the aftermath of the 1860 election, seven Deep South states passed secession ordinances by February 1861.
Examine the arguments for secession by the South, and the reaction in the North.
Declaring themselves the Confederate States of America, these seven states elected Jefferson Davis as the provisional president and began raising an army.
Secessionists justified their actions by claiming the U.S. Constitution was a compact between states that could be dissolved at any time by state legislatures when the federal government encroached on their sovereignty.
As part of its efforts to assert independence, the Confederacy appointed several ministers to European nations and refused to surrender U.S. federal arsenals or properties to Washington, precipitating the events that led to the Battle of Fort Sumter in April 1861.
The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, the CSA, and the South) was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by eleven Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States.
The Deep South is a descriptive category of the cultural and geographic subregions in the American South.
Historically, it is differentiated from the "Upper South" as being the states which were most dependent on plantation type agriculture during the pre-Civil War period.
The Deep South was also commonly referred to as the Lower South or the Cotton States.
As part of their justification for leaving the union after the election of 1860, secessionists argued that the Constitution was a compact among states that could be abandoned at any time without consultation, and that each state reserved the right to secede from the compact.
South Carolina invoked the Declaration of Independence to defend their right to secede from the Union, seeing their declaration of secession as a comparable document.
In the aftermath of the 1860 election, seven Deep South states passed secession ordinances by February 1861 (before Abraham Lincoln took office as president).
Declaring themselves as the Confederate States of America, these seven states elected Jefferson Davis as the provisional president, declared Montgomery the nation's capital, and began raising an army .
After the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, and Lincoln's subsequent call for troops on April 15, four more states declared their secession.
By spring 1861, the Confederacy was composed of South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.
Although slave-holding Delaware and Maryland did not secede, citizens from those states exhibited divided loyalties, and Lincoln implemented a system of compensated emancipation and slave confiscation from "disloyal citizens" in these border states during the Civil War.
At first, Lincoln tried to pacify the seceeding states in his first inaugural address, in which he explicitly promised to preserve slavery in the states it already existed in, and implied support for the proposed Corwin Amendment, which would have given further protections to slavery in the Constitution.
However, efforts by the Confederate States to forcibly remove United States troops and federal presence in its territory (culminating in the Battle of Fort Sumter) pushed the two factions irreversibly towards war.
The United States government did not declare war on the Confederate States, but conducted its military efforts: beginning with a presidential proclamation issued April 15, 1861, which called for troops to recapture Southern forts and suppress a Southern rebellion.
Immediately following Fort Sumter, the Confederate Congress declared war against the United States, and the Civil War officially began.
During the four years of its wartime existence, the Confederacy asserted its independence by appointing dozens of diplomatic agents abroad.
The United States government, on the other hand, regarded the Southern states in rebellion and refused any formal recognition of their government.
They issued warnings to Europe (particularly Britain) that threatened hostile relations if the Confederacy was recognized internationally.
Throughout the early years of the war, British foreign secretary Lord John Russell, Napoleon III of France, and other foreign leaders showed interest in recognizing the Confederacy, or at least a mediation in the war.
However, Europe remained largely neutral in the Civil War, unwilling to lose trading relations with the United States.
At the same time, foreign governments curiously watched the political evolution of the Confederacy and sent military observers to assess Confederate autonomy in the event that the South prevailed in its fight for nationhood.
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The United States government declared war on the Confederate States without warning, Lincoln failed to work with the South, reneging on his promise to preserve slavery, All of these answers, and The U.S. Constitution was a compact between states that could be dissolved at any time
He declared that secession was wrong., He promised that he would not invade the South., He promised that he would not interfere with slavery where it already existed., He declared that secession was wrong AND he promised that he would not invade the South., and All of the answers
Source: Boundless. “Secession of the South.” Boundless U.S. History. Boundless, 14 Nov. 2014. Retrieved 15 Apr. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/a-house-dividing-1840-1861-17/the-impending-crisis-129/secession-of-the-south-691-8136/