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Shuttle diplomacy is the action of a thrid party in serving as an intermediary between principals in a dispute.
Identify Shuttle Diplomacy
Analyze Henry Kissinger's diplomacy
Kissinger continued to engage in shuttle diplomacy as part of U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East during the Nixon and Ford administrations, including the Sinai Interim Agreement (1975), and the Israel and Syria arrangement on the Golan Heights (1974).
Kissinger later played a leading role in the Paris Peace Accords that ended the Vietnam War.
Kissinger was particularly concerned about the expansion of Soviet influence in South Asia and supported U.S. involvement in Pakistan in the Liberation War of Bangladesh (1971).
During the Angola Civil War, which followed Angola's independence from Portugal, Kissinger supported the right-wing FNLA and UNITA, who fought in opposition to the left-wing Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), who were supported by Cuba.
During the Yom Kippur War, the United States, under the guidance of U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, acted through shuttle diplomacy to facilitate the cessation of hostilities between Israel and the Arab world, lead by Syria and Egypt.
The Sinai Interim Agreement, also known as the Sinai II Agreement, was a diplomatic agreement signed by Egypt and Israel on September 4, 1975. The agreement stated that the conflicts between the countries "shall not be resolved by military force but by peaceful means. " It also called "for a further withdrawal in the Sinai and a new UN buffer zone. " Thus, the agreement strengthened Israel's and Egypt's commitment to abiding by U.N. Resolution 338 and strengthened diplomatic relations between the Egypt, Israel, and the United States.
The Paris Peace Accords of 1973, intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War, ended direct U.S. military involvement, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. The governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries, signed the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam on January 27, 1973.
The Angolan Civil War was a major civil conflict in the Southern African state of Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975.
In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the action of a thrid party in serving as an intermediary between principals in a dispute, without direct principal-to-principal contact. Originally and usually, the process entails successive travel ("shuttling") by the intermediary, from the working location of one principal, to that of another. The term was first applied to describe the efforts of United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, beginning November 5, 1973, which facilitated the cessation of hostilities following the Yom Kippur War. Negotiators often use shuttle diplomacy when one or both of the two principals refuses to recognize the other.
A proponent of Realpolitik, Kissinger was highly influential in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. Shuttle diplomacy became an important part of Kissinger's diplomatic efforts in the Middle East during the Nixon and Ford administrations. He accomplished the Sinai Interim Agreement (1975) and arrangements between Israel and Syria on the Golan Heights (1974).
Kissinger also oversaw United States negotiations in Vietnam in the 1960's. He reports that, "In August 1965... [Henry Cabot Lodge], an old friend serving as Ambassador to Saigon, had asked me to visit Vietnam as his consultant. I toured Vietnam first for two weeks in October and November 1965, again for about ten days in July 1966, and a third time for a few days in October 1966... Lodge gave me a free hand to look into any subject of my choice. "
Kissinger played a leading role in the negotiations that produced the Paris Peace Accords. Along with North Vietnamese Politburo Member Le Duc Tho, Kissinger was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10, 1973, for the negotiation of ceasefires and "Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam"; Tho rejected the award, telling Kissinger that peace had not been really restored in South Vietnam. Although the conflict would continue until the successful invasion of South Vietnam by the North Vietnamese in 1975, Kissinger's diplomacy did help the U.S. end its military involvement in the war.
Under Kissinger's guidance, the United States government supported Pakistan in the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971. Kissinger was particularly concerned about the expansion of Soviet influence in South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship recently signed by India and the U.S.S.R., and sought to demonstrate to the People's Republic of China (Pakistan's ally and an enemy of both India and the USSR) the value of a tacit alliance with the United States.
In 1974 a leftist military coup overthrew the sitting government in Portugal. The National Salvation Junta, the new government, quickly granted Portugal's colonies, including Angola and Mozambique, independence. Cuban troops in Angola supported the left-wing Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in its fight against right-wing UNITA and FNLA rebels during the resulting Angolan Civil War (1975–2002). Kissinger supported the right-wing FNLA, led by Holden Roberto, and UNITA, led by Jonas Savimbi. He also helped orchestrate the CIA-supported invasion of Angola by South African troops. The FNLA was defeated and UNITA was turned into an insurgency.
Henry Kissinger, National Security Advisor
Kissinger developed the practice of "shuttle diplomacy" as Nixon's National Security Adviser, and later, Ford's Secretary of State.
In the Angolan Civil War, between the FNLA and the UNITA, In the Liberation War of Bangladesh, between Pakistan and the Soviet Union, In the Vietnam War, between North and South Vietnam, and In the Yom Kippur War, between Israel and Syria and Egypt
Direct one-on-one contact between principals in a dispute, A third party often decides the peace terms that the principals must then abide by, All these answers, and A third party serves as an intermediary between the two sides in dispute