During his presidency (1913–1921), Woodrow Wilson passed a Progressive Democratic legislative agenda and played a major role in World War I.
Woodrow Wilson continued the U.S. policy
of intervening in the affairs of Latin American nations, including Cuba, Haiti,
the Dominican Republic, Panama, Nicaragua, and Mexico.
Conflict began when a Serb nationalist assassinated the Austro-Hungarian archduke; war quickly spread across Europe and affected the world.
Incumbent Democratic President
Wilson narrowly defeated Republican Supreme Court Justice Hughes in the 1916
Although World War I began in Europe
in 1914, the United States pursued a policy of neutrality until 1917.
By 1916, American neutrality was giving way to self-interest and
nationalism, with peace efforts failing as fear of Germany grew.
The United States mobilized its home front in WWI, resulting in bureaucratic
confusion but also expansion of the wartime economy and women in the workforce.
War propaganda campaigns by the Creel Committee and Hollywood
influenced American views on World War I.
Congress used the Espionage and Sedition Acts to stamp out war
opposition by curbing civil liberties.
President Wilson instituted a
draft to catch up to larger European military forces, resulting in the American
The western front in Europe opened with a
German invasion and continued through four years of bloody combat in World War I.
The American Expeditionary Forces
(AEF) served alongside the French and British armies on the western front.
"Old-stock" Americans and Irish Americans
opposed U.S. entry into World War I, but Woodrow Wilson made appeals to gain their
The Progressive movement influenced U.S. policy in World War I through its
ideals of morality, efficiency, and democracy.
of war in 1914 led to the "Americanization" campaign aimed at millions
of immigrants in the United States.
Anti-German hysteria in the United States during World War I led to restrictions
on speaking German and to internment.
campaigned for immigration restrictions from 1890 to 1920, proposing measures such
as literacy tests and quotas.
The early 1900s marked the low point in 20th-century race relations between white Americans and
Enacted between 1876 and 1965, Jim Crow laws formalized racial segregation in the Southern States, systematizing a number of economic, educational, and social disadvantages for African Americans.
Theodore Roosevelt's treatment of the Brownsville Affair, in which 167 African American soldiers were wrongfully discharged from the Army, caused the black community to turn away from the Republic president they had once supported.
Despite promises made to black voters during the election of 1912, Woodrow Wilson gave into the demands of white Southern Democrats, fired a number of black Republican politicians, and supported racial segregation.
Woodrow Wilson's policy of military segregation led to conflict, rioting, and the brutal sentencing of the all-black Twenty-Fourth U.S. Infantry Regiment.
Marcus Garvey, a prominent Jamaican, led a Back-to-Africa movement that promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.
surrendered in November 1918 after its war alliance collapsed, ending World War
I in a reshaped and devastated Europe.
Points, a speech made by Woodrow Wilson in January 1918 outlining the aims of the
Great War, became the blueprint for postwar peace negotiations.
The Paris Peace Conference determined the terms of peace after
World War I between the victorious Allies and the defeated Central powers.
The League of Nations, created by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I, was
an organization formed to promote diplomacy and preserve world peace.
After World War I, the United States faced hard economic times and
problems related to labor, race, and reintegration of veterans.
Postwar patriotism and fears of Communism after the Russian
Revolution produced the Red Scare in the United States in 1919–1920.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Mexican population in the United States grew, and African Americans migrated to the North.
Numerous examples of postwar racial friction, sparked by Nativism
and the Great Migration, reached a peak in the 1919 Red Summer.
The Spanish flu of 1918 was a global influenza pandemic that killed millions more people
than did the Great War.
World War I
both decimated and transformed the modern world, with the United States taking on a
major role and seeing numerous changes in its national character and policies.