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Elements of composition are a commonly used group of aspects to create emphasis in a work of art.
Give examples of techniques used by artists to create emphasis and compositional balance (sense of unity)
For example, objects placed at a distances from the viewer's eye are rendered with less details, clarity, and intensity than the closer ones. There are many techniques that artists use to create this emphasis: including line, color, shape, texture, form, and value.
Although artists use these techniques to create emphasis in a composition, there also needs to be a compositional balance in order to create an aesthetically pleasing piece.
There are numerous approaches or "compositional techniques" to achieving a sense of unity within an artwork, depending on the goals of the artist. Conventional composition can be achieved by utilizing a number of techniques: including the rule of space, the rule of odds, and the rule of thirds.
In the visual arts in particular painting, graphic design, photography and sculpture composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art or a photograph, as distinct from the subject of a work. It can also be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art.
Elements of composition are a commonly used group of aspects to create emphasis in a work of art. For example, objects placed at a distances from the viewer's eye are rendered with less details, clarity, and intensity than the closer ones. There are many techniques that artists use to create this emphasis:
Texture is the quality of a surface, often corresponding to its tactile character, or what may be sensed by touch. Texture may be used, for example, in portraying fabrics. It can be explicitly rendered, or implied with other artistic elements such as lines, shading, and variation of color.
Form is the external appearance of a clearly defined area. Form may be created by the forming of two or more shapes or as three-dimensional shapes (cube, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, etc.). It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color and is considered three-dimensional showing height, width and depth.
Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. Space includes the background, foreground, and middle ground. It refers to the distances or areas around, between, or within things. There are two types of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter, while negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter.
Shape pertains to the use of areas in two dimensional space that can be defined by edges, setting one flat specific space apart from another. Shapes can be geometric (square, circle, hexagon) or organic (such as the shape of a puddle or blob).
Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design. Color is the quality of an object or substance with respect to the one reflected by it, and usually determined visually by measurement of hue, saturation and brightness of the reflected light.
Value, or tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and highlight, in an artwork. Some people also refer the lightness and darkness in an artwork as tints(light) and shades(dark). Value is thus directly related to contrast and is the relative degree of lightness in the graphic work of art or painting.
Line is defined as a mark that spans a distance between two points (or the path of a moving point), taking any form along the way. As an art element, line pertains to the use of various marks, outlines and implied lines in artwork and design, most often used to define shape in two-dimensional work. Implied line is the path that the viewer's eye takes as it follows shapes, colors, and form along a path, but may not be continuous or physically connected. Line is an element of art that is simplest, most ancient, and most universal means for creating visual arts.
Although artists use these techniques to create emphasis in a composition, there also needs to be a compositional balance in order to create an aesthetically pleasing piece. There are numerous approaches or "compositional techniques" to achieving a sense of unity within an artwork, depending on the goals of the artist. Conventional composition can be achieved by utilizing a number of techniques:
The rule of thirds is a guideline followed by some visual artists. The objective is to stop the subject(s) and areas of interest (such as the horizon) from bisecting the image, by placing them near one of the lines that would divide the image into three equal columns and rows, ideally near the intersection of those lines .
The "rule of odds" states that by framing the object of interest with an even number of surrounding objects, it becomes more comforting to the eye, thus creates a feeling of ease and pleasure. It is based on the assumption that humans tend to find visual images that reflect their own preferences/wishes in life more pleasing and attractive.The "rule of odds" suggests that an odd number of subjects in an image is more interesting than an even number. An even number of subjects produces symmetries in the image, which can appear less natural for a naturalistic, informal composition.
The rule of space applies to artwork picturing object(s) to which the artist wants to apply the illusion of movement, or which is supposed to create a contextual bubble in the viewer's mind. This can be achieved, for instance, by leaving white space in the direction the eyes of a portrayed person are looking, or, when picturing a runner, adding white space in front of him rather than behind him to indicate movement.