Blood is composed of plasma and three types of cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Blood contains plasma and blood cells, some of which have hemoglobin that makes blood red.
The average blood volume in adult is five liters.
The main function of blood is to supply oxygen to tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Other functions include pH regulation and thermoregulation.
Plasma comprises about 55% of total blood volume. It contains proteins and clotting factors, transports nutrients, and removes waste.
Red blood cells lack nuclei and have a biconcave shape.
The primary functions of red blood cells (RBCs) include carrying oxygen
to all parts of the body, binding to hemoglobin, and removing carbon dioxide.
Human erythrocytes are produced through a process called erythropoiesis. They take about seven days to mature.
The different types of white blood cells (leukocytes) include neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages.
Each type of white blood cell (WBC) has a specific function in defending the body against infections.
Haematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells components. It is necessary for vertebrate function.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are membrane-bound cell fragments that are essential for clot formation during wound healing.
Platelets are membrane-bound cell fragments derived from megakaryocytes, which are produced during thrombopoiesis.
Hemostasis is the natural process that stops blood loss when an injury occurs.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels, which reduces blood loss during injury.
At the site of vessel injury, platelets stick together to create a plug, which is the beginning of blood clot formation.
Coagulation is the process by which a blood clot forms to reduce blood loss after damage to a blood vessel.
Vitamin K is an essential factor of the coagulation cascade.
Clot retraction is the shrinking of a blood clot facilitated by thrombolytic agents.
Fibrinolysis is a process of breaking down clots in order to prevent them from growing and becoming problematic.
The most common blood disorders involve defects in the amount or activity of factors involved in coagulation.
Whole blood refers to human blood transfusion from a standard blood donation.
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that provides fluid replacement for the circulatory system.
Red blood cells have surface-expressed proteins that define the self/not-self nature of the cells.
Blood banks test donor blood to ensure recipient compatibility, reducing the risk of hemolytic reaction, renal failure, and death.
Hematopoietic stem cells reside in the bone marrow and have the unique ability to differentiate into all mature blood cell types.
Blood tests are laboratory analyses performed on a blood sample typically taken from a vein in the arm for diagnostic purposes.
Blood substitutes are substances used to mimic the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, providing an alternative to blood transfusion.
Withdrawing blood is generally done by trained specialists, such as phlebotomists, using special hypodermic needles and blood tubes.
In patients with suspected peripheral blood or bone marrow diseases, a bone marrow biopsy can isolate bone marrow for an examination.
Hemopoetic growth factors regulate the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of progenitor cells in the blood and bone marrow.
Iron overload, also known as hemochromatosis, is an accumulation of iron in the body and can lead to tissue and organ damage.
A complete blood count (CBC), useful in diagnosing disease, yields a count of numbers or volumes of the cell types in the blood.
Anticoagulants are substances that prevent coagulation, or clotting, of blood.
Aspirin can inhibit the formation of blood clots, which can help prevent heart attacks.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when IgG produced by the mother transfers through the placenta and attacks fetal red blood cells.
Anemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia.
Sickle-cell disease is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder in which red blood cells assume a rigid sickle shape.
Leukemia is a term covering a spectrum of cancers of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an increase in immature white blood cells.