The epidermis includes five main layers: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidium, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum.
The dermis consists of a papillary and a reticular layer that serve to protect and cushion the body from stress and strain.
Skin color is determined largely by the amount of melanin pigment produced by melanocytes in the skin.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous glands, are distributed over most of the body surface.
Sebaceous glands are found in most of the skin (except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet).
Fingernails are made of keratin and they perform two major functions: protection and sensation.
Hair growth occurs from the hair follicle.
The skin provides an overlaying protective barrier from the environment and pathogens while contributing to the adaptive immune system.
The integumentary system keeps body temperature within limits even when environmental temperature varies; this is called thermoregulation.
The somatosensory system is composed of the receptors and processing centers to produce the sensory modalities, such as touch and pain.
One of the metabolic functions of the skin is the production of vitamin D3 when ultraviolet light reacts with 7-dehydrocholesterol.
The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and remove waste from its own cells and from the stratum basale of the epidermis.
The integumentary system functions in absorption (oxygen and some medications) and excretion (e.g., perspiration via the eccrine glands).
Epidermal wound healing describes the mechanism by which the skin repairs itself after injury.
A deep wound involves the inner, deeper layers of the skin (dermis).
The integumentary system develops from all embryonic layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest cells).
The integumentary system undergoes intrinsic and extrinsic cutaneous aging, primarily involving the dermis.
Skin cancers are abnormal growths of skin cells with varying degrees of malignancy.
A burn is a type of injury to flesh caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation, or friction.
A sunburn is a burn to living tissue (skin), which is produced by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun's rays.
An infection is the invasion of tissues by disease-causing microorganisms; two common infections of the skin are athlete's foot and herpes.
Pressure ulcers, or bedsores, are lesions cause by unrelieved pressure that blocks blood flow to the skin, causing severe illness or death.
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that affects the skin, caused by faulty immune signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells.
Acne, clinically known as acne vulgaris, is a common human skin disease affecting the skin of the face, upper parts of the chest, and back.
A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Skin grafting is a type of graft surgery involving the transplantation of skin.
A blister is a small pocket of fluid in the upper skin layers, forming as fluid collects between the epidermis and the layers beneath.
Albinism is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.
Vitiligo is a disorder characterized by patchy loss of skin pigmentation due to the immune system attacking melanocytes in the skin.
An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system.
Cleavage lines are topological lines drawn on a map of the human body and correspond to the orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis.
Changes in skin color can be diagnostic of trauma (bruising), environmental, or physiological changes (jaundice, melasma, and liver spots).
Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the removal of body hair, and describes the methods used to achieve that result.
Chemotherapy causes hair loss by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells and hair follicles.
Male baldness is the result of genetic sensitivity of hair follicles to dihydrotestosterone that causes hair follicles to atrophy.
Earwax, or cerumen, is a yellowish waxy substance secreted in the ear canal which can affect hearing if produced excessively.
Transdermal drug delivery can be acheived by a medicated adhesive patch to deliver a dose of drug through the skin and into the bloodstream.
A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Alopecia areata is a medical condition, possibly autoimmune, where hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, especially the scalp.